SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Hoofnagle JH, Mullen KD, Jones DB, Rustgi V, Di Bisceglie A, et al. Treatment of chronic non-A,non-B hepatitis with recombinant human alpha interferon. A preliminary report. N Engl J Med 1986; 315: 15751578.
  • 2
    Lau DT, Kleiner DE, Ghany MG, Park Y, Schmid P, Hoofnagle JH. 10-Year follow-up after interferon-alpha therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 1998; 28: 11211127.
  • 3
    National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Panel statement: management of hepatitis C. Hepatology 1997; 26( Suppl): 2S10S.
  • 4
    Lindsay KL. Therapy of hepatitis C: overview. Hepatology 1997; 26( Suppl): 71S77S.
  • 5
    Reichard O, Andersson J, Schvarcz R, Weiland O. Ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Lancet 1991; 337: 10581061.
  • 6
    Dusheiko G, Main J, Thomas H, Reichard O, Lee C, Dhillon A, et al. Ribavirin treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C: results of a placebo-controlled study. J Hepatol 1996; 25: 591598.
  • 7
    Reichard O, Yun ZB, Sonnerborg A, Weiland O. Hepatitis C viral RNA titers in serum prior to, during, and after oral treatment with ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. J Med Virol 1993; 41: 99102.
  • 8
    Di Bisceglie AM, Shindo M, Fong TL, Fried MW, Swain MG, Bergasa NV, et al. A pilot study of ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 1992; 16: 649654.
  • 9
    Brillanti S, Garson J, Foli M, Whitby K, Deaville R, Masci C, et al. A pilot study of combination therapy with ribavirin plus interferon alfa for interferon alfa-resistant chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 1994; 107: 812817.
  • 10
    McHutchison JG, Gordon SC, Schiff ER, Shiffman ML, Lee WM, Rustgi VK, et al. Interferon alfa-2b alone or in combination with ribavirin as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis C. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 14851492.
  • 11
    Poynard T, Marcellin P, Lee SS, Niederau C, Minuk GS, Ideo G, et al. Randomised trial of interferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin for 48 weeks or for 24 weeks versus interferon alpha-2b plus placebo for 48 weeks for treatment of chronic infection with hepatitis C virus. Lancet 1998; 352: 14261432.
  • 12
    EASL International Consensus Conference on hepatitis C. Paris, 26-27 February 1999. Consensus statement. J Hepatol 1999; 31( Suppl 1): 38.
  • 13
    Heathcote EJ, Shiffman ML, Cooksley WG, Dusheiko GM, Lee SS, Balart L, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a in patients with chronic hepatitis C and cirrhosis. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 16731680.
  • 14
    Lindsay KL, Trepo C, Heintges T, Shiffman ML, Gordon SC, Hoefs JC, et al. A randomized, double-blind trial comparing pegylated interferon alfa-2b to interferon alfa-2b as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2001; 34: 395403.
  • 15
    Fried MW, Shiffman ML, Reddy KR, Smith C, Marinos G, Goncales FL Jr, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 975982.
  • 16
    Manns MP, McHutchison JG, Gordon SC, Rustgi VK, Shiffman M, Reindollar R, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a randomised trial. Lancet 2001; 358: 958965.
  • 17
    Hadziyannis SJ, Sette H Jr, Morgan TR, Balan V, Diago M, Marcellin P, et al. Peginterferon-alpha2a and ribavirin combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C: a randomized study of treatment duration and ribavirin dose. Ann Intern Med 2004; 140: 346355.
  • 18
    National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement: Management of hepatitis C: 2002-June 10-12, 2002. Hepatology 2002; 36( Suppl): S3S20.
  • 19
    Neumann AU, Lam NP, Dahari H, Gretch DR, Wiley TE, Layden TJ, et al. Hepatitis C viral dynamics in vivo and the antiviral efficacy of interferon-alpha therapy. Science 1998; 282: 103107.
  • 20
    Pawlotsky JM. Current and future concepts in hepatitis C therapy. Semin Liver Dis 2005; 25: 7283.
  • 21
    Frese M, Pietschmann T, Moradpour D, Haller O, Bartenschlager R. Interferon-alpha inhibits hepatitis C virus subgenomic RNA replication by an MxA-independent pathway. J Gen Virol 2001; 82: 723733.
  • 22
    Guo JT, Bichko VV, Seeger C. Effect of alpha interferon on the hepatitis C virus replicon. J Virol 2001; 75: 85168523.
  • 23
    Lanford RE, Guerra B, Lee H, Averett DR, Pfeiffer B, Chavez D, et al. Antiviral effect and virus-host interactions in response to alpha interferon, gamma interferon, poly(i)-poly(c), tumor necrosis factor alpha, and ribavirin in hepatitis C virus subgenomic replicons. J Virol 2003; 77: 10921104.
  • 24
    Lindenbach BD, Evans MJ, Syder AJ, Wolk B, Tellinghuisen TL, Liu CC, et al. Complete replication of hepatitis C virus in cell culture. Science 2005; 309: 623626.
  • 25
    Castet V, Fournier C, Soulier A, Brillet R, Coste J, Larrey D, et al. Alpha interferon inhibits hepatitis C virus replication in primary human hepatocytes infected in vitro. J Virol 2002; 76: 81898199.
  • 26
    Peters M. Actions of cytokines on the immune response and viral interactions: an overview. Hepatology 1996; 23: 909916.
  • 27
    Tilg H. New insights into the mechanisms of interferon alfa: an immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine. Gastroenterology 1997; 112: 10171021.
  • 28
    Pawlotsky JM, Dahari H, Neumann AU, Hezode C, Germanidis G, Lonjon I, et al. Antiviral action of ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: 703714.
  • 29
    Bronowicki JP, Ouzan D, Asselah T, Desmorat H, Zarski JP, Foucher J, et al. Efficacy and safety of 22 weeks of maintenance therapy with peginterferon alfa-2a (40kD) (Pegasys) alone versus peginterferon alfa-2a (40kD) plus rivarin (Copegus) in naive patients with chronic hepatitis C and genotype 1 who responded to a 24-week course of peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kD) plus ribavirin: an open, multicenter, randomized trial. Hepatology 2003; 38: 244A.
  • 30
    Lau JY, Tam RC, Liang TJ, Hong Z. Mechanism of action of ribavirin in the combination treatment of chronic HCV infection. Hepatology 2002; 35: 10021009.
  • 31
    Hultgren C, Milich DR, Weiland O, Sallberg M. The antiviral compound ribavirin modulates the T helper (Th) 1/Th2 subset balance in hepatitis B and C virus-specific immune responses. J Gen Virol 1998; 79: 23812391.
  • 32
    Dixit NM, Layden-Almer JE, Layden TJ, Perelson AS. Modelling how ribavirin improves interferon response rates in hepatitis C virus infection. Nature 2004; 432: 922924.
  • 33
    Crotty S, Cameron CE, Andino R. RNA virus error catastrophe: direct molecular test by using ribavirin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001; 98: 68956900.
  • 34
    Crotty S, Maag D, Arnold JJ, Zhong W, Lau JY, Hong Z, et al. The broad-spectrum antiviral ribonucleoside ribavirin is an RNA virus mutagen. Nat Med 2000; 6: 13751379.
  • 35
    Lutchman GA, Danehower S, Park Y, Ward C, Liang TJ, Hoofnagle JH, Thomson MZ, et al. Mutation rate of hepatitis C virus in patients during ribavirin monotherapy. Hepatology 2004; 40( Suppl 1): 385A.
  • 36
    Chevaliez S, Brillet R, Hezode C, Dhumeaux D, Pawlotsky JM. Assessment of ribavirin mutagenic properties in vivo and the influence of interferon alpha-induced reduction of hepatitis C virus RNA load upon therapy. Hepatology 2005; 42( Suppl 1): 679A.
  • 37
    Poynard T, Imbert-Bismut F, Munteanu M, Ratziu V. FibroTest-FibroSURE: towards a universal biomarker of liver fibrosis? Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2005; 5: 1521.
  • 38
    Castera L, Vergniol J, Foucher J, Le Bail B, Chanteloup E, Haaser M, et al. Prospective comparison of transient elastography, Fibrotest, APRI, and liver biopsy for the assessment of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 2005; 128: 343350.
  • 39
    Wai CT, Greenson JK, Fontana RJ, Kalbfleisch JD, Marrero JA, Conjeevaram HS, et al. A simple noninvasive index can predict both significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2003; 38: 518526.
  • 40
    Leroy V, Monier F, Bottari S, Trocme C, Sturm N, Hilleret MN, et al. Circulating matrix metalloproteinases 1, 2, 9 and their inhibitors TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 as serum markers of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C: comparison with PIIINP and hyaluronic acid. Am J Gastroenterol 2004; 99: 271279.
    Direct Link:
  • 41
    Chevaliez S, Pawlotsky JM. Use of virologic assays in the diagnosis and management of hepatitis C virus infection. Clin Liver Dis 2005; 9: 371382.
  • 42
    Jacobson IM, Brown RS, Freilich B, Afdhal NH, Kwo P, Santoro J, et al. Weight-based ribavirin dosing increases sustained viral response in patients with chronic hepatitis C: final results of the WIN-R study, a US community-based trial. Hepatology 2005; 42( Suppl 1): 749A.
  • 43
    Ferenci P, Fried MW, Shiffman ML, Smith CI, Marinos G, Goncales FL Jr, et al. Predicting sustained virological responses in chronic hepatitis C patients treated with peginterferon alfa-2a (40 KD)/ribavirin. J Hepatol 2005; 43: 425433.
  • 44
    Davis GL, Wong JB, McHutchison JG, Manns MP, Harvey J, Albrecht J. Early virologic response to treatment with peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2003; 38: 645652.
  • 45
    Zeuzem S, Buti M, Ferenci P, Sperl J, Horsmans Y, Cianciara J, et al. Efficacy of 24 weeks treatment with peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C infected with genotype 1 and low pretreatment viremia. J Hepatol 2005;in press.
  • 46
    Talal AH, Weisz K, Hau T, Kreiswirth S, Dieterich DT. A preliminary study of erythropoietin for anemia associated with ribavirin and interferon-alpha. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 28022804.
  • 47
    Gergely AE, Lafarge P, Fouchard-Hubert I, Lunel-Fabiani F. Treatment of ribavirin/interferon-induced anemia with erythropoietin in patients with hepatitis C. Hepatology 2002; 35: 12811282.
  • 48
    Dieterich DT, Wasserman R, Brau N, Hassanein TI, Bini EJ, Bowers PJ, et al. Once-weekly epoetin alfa improves anemia and facilitates maintenance of ribavirin dosing in hepatitis C virus-infected patients receiving ribavirin plus interferon alfa. Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98: 24912499.
  • 49
    Pockros PJ, Shiffman ML, Schiff ER, Sulkowski MS, Younossi Z, Dieterich DT, et al. Epoetin alfa improves quality of life in anemic HCV-infected patients receiving combination therapy. Hepatology 2004; 40: 14501458.
  • 50
    Shiffman ML, Price A, Hubbard S, Wilson M, Salvatori J, Sterling RK, et al. Treatment of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 with peginterferon alfa-2b, high weight-based dose ribavirin and epoetin alfa enhances sustained virologic response. Hepatology 2005; 42( Suppl 1): 217A.
  • 51
    Bennett CL, Luminari S, Nissenson AR, Tallman MS, Klinge SA, McWilliams N, et al. Pure red-cell aplasia and epoetin therapy. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 14031408.
  • 52
    Casadevall N, Nataf J, Viron B, Kolta A, Kiladjian JJ, Martin-Dupont P, et al. Pure red-cell aplasia and antierythropoietin antibodies in patients treated with recombinant erythropoietin. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 469475.
  • 53
    Davis GL, Esteban-Mur R, Rustgi V, Hoefs J, Gordon SC, Trepo C, et al. Interferon alfa-2b alone or in combination with ribavirin for the treatment of relapse of chronic hepatitis C. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 14931499.
  • 54
    Soza A, Everhart JE, Ghany MG, Doo E, Heller T, Promrat K, et al. Neutropenia during combination therapy of interferon alfa and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2002; 36: 12731279.
  • 55
    Fontana RJ. Neuropsychiatric toxicity of antiviral treatment in chronic hepatitis C. Dig Dis 2000; 18: 107116.
  • 56
    Constant A, Castera L, Dantzer R, Couzigou P, de Ledinghen V, Demotes-Mainard J, et al. Mood alterations during interferon-alfa therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C: evidence for an overlap between manic/hypomanic and depressive symptoms. J Clin Psychiatry 2005; 66: 10501057.
  • 57
    Pawlotsky JM. Mechanisms of antiviral treatment efficacy and failure in chronic hepatitis C. Antiviral Res 2003; 59: 111.
  • 58
    Muir AJ, Bornstein JD, Killenberg PG. Peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in blacks and non-Hispanic whites. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 22652271.
  • 59
    Pawlotsky JM, Hezode C, Pellegrin B, Soulier A, von Wagner M, Brouwer JT, et al. Early HCV genotype 4 replication kinetics during treatment with peginterferon alpha-2a (Pegasys)-ribavirin combination: a comparison with HCV genotypes 1 and 3 kinetics. Hepatology 2002; 36( Suppl): 291A.
  • 60
    Everson GT. Treatment of patients with hepatitis C virus on the waiting list. Liver Transpl 2003; 9: S90S94.
  • 61
    Everson GT, Trotter J, Forman L, Kugelmas M, Halprin A, Fey B, et al. Treatment of advanced hepatitis C with a low accelerating dosage regimen of antiviral therapy. Hepatology 2005; 42: 255262.
  • 62
    Forns X, Garcia-Retortillo M, Serrano T, Feliu A, Suarez F, de la Mata M, et al. Antiviral therapy of patients with decompensated cirrhosis to prevent recurrence of hepatitis C after liver transplantation. J Hepatol 2003; 39: 389396.
  • 63
    Simon DM, Gordon SC, Kaplan MM, Koff RS, Regenstein F, Everson G, et al. Treatment of chronic hepatitis C with interferon alfa-n3: a multicenter, randomized, open-label trial. Hepatology 1997; 25: 445448.
  • 64
    Crippin JS, McCashland T, Terrault N, Sheiner P, Charlton MR. A pilot study of the tolerability and efficacy of antiviral therapy in hepatitis C virus-infected patients awaiting liver transplantation. Liver Transpl 2002; 8: 350355.
  • 65
    Everson GT. Treatment of hepatitis C in patients who have decompensated cirrhosis. Clin Liver Dis 2005; 9: 473486.
  • 66
    Garcia-Retortillo M, Forns X, Feliu A, Moitinho E, Costa J, Navasa M, et al. Hepatitis C virus kinetics during and immediately after liver transplantation. Hepatology 2002; 35: 680687.
  • 67
    Biggins SW, Terrault NA. Treatment of recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation. Clin Liver Dis 2005; 9: 505523.
  • 68
    Stravitz RT, Shiffman ML, Sanyal AJ, Luketic VA, Sterling RK, Heuman DM, et al. Effects of interferon treatment on liver histology and allograft rejection in patients with recurrent hepatitis C following liver transplantation. Liver Transpl 2004; 10: 850858.
  • 69
    Mukherjee S, Rogge J, Weaver L, Schafer DF. Pilot study of pegylated interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin for recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation. Transplant Proc 2003; 35: 30423044.
  • 70
    Saab S, Kalmaz D, Gajjar NA, Hiatt J, Durazo F, Han S, et al. Outcomes of acute rejection after interferon therapy in liver transplant recipients. Liver Transpl 2004; 10: 859867.
  • 71
    Abdelmalek MF, Firpi RJ, Soldevila-Pico C, Reed AI, Hemming AW, Liu C, et al. Sustained viral response to interferon and ribavirin in liver transplant recipients with recurrent hepatitis C. Liver Transpl 2004; 10: 199207.
  • 72
    Dumortier J, Scoazec JY, Chevallier P, Boillot O. Treatment of recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation: a pilot study of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin combination. J Hepatol 2004; 40: 669674.
  • 73
    Fabrizi F, Bunnapradist S, Martin P. Treatment of hepatitis C in potential kidney and heart transplant patients. Clin Liver Dis 2005; 9: 487503.
  • 74
    Russo MW, Goldsweig CD, Jacobson IM, Brown RS Jr. Interferon monotherapy for dialysis patients with chronic hepatitis C: an analysis of the literature on efficacy and safety. Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98: 16101615.
    Direct Link:
  • 75
    Fabrizi F, Dulai G, Dixit V, Bunnapradist S, Martin P. Meta-analysis: interferon for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in dialysis patients. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003; 18: 10711081.
  • 76
    Carrat F, Bani-Sadr F, Pol S, Rosenthal E, Lunel-Fabiani F, Benzekri A, et al. Pegylated interferon alfa-2b vs standard interferon alfa-2b, plus ribavirin, for chronic hepatitis C in HIV-infected patients: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 292: 28392848.
  • 77
    Chung RT, Andersen J, Volberding P, Robbins GK, Liu T, Sherman KE, et al. Peginterferon Alfa-2a plus ribavirin versus interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C in HIV-coinfected persons. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 451459.
  • 78
    Torriani FJ, Rodriguez-Torres M, Rockstroh JK, Lissen E, Gonzalez-Garcia J, Lazzarin A, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 438450.
  • 79
    Alberti A, Clumeck N, Collins S, Gerlich W, Lundgren J, Palu G, et al. Short statement of the first European Consensus Conference on the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C in HIV co-infected patients. J Hepatol 2005; 42: 615624.
  • 80
    Consensus conference. Treatment of hepatitis C. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 2002; 26: B303320.
  • 81
    Pawlotsky JM, McHutchison JG. Hepatitis C. Development of new drugs and clinical trials: promises and pitfalls. Summary of an AASLD hepatitis single topic conference, Chicago, IL, February 27-March 1, 2003. Hepatology 2004; 39: 554567.
  • 82
    Balan V, Sulkowski MS, Nelson D, Everson G, Lambiase L, Post A, et al. Albuferon, a novel therapeutic agent for hepatitis C: results of a phase 1/2 study in treatment-experienced subjects with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2004; 40( Suppl 1): 280A.
  • 83
    Bain V, Kaita K, Yoshida E, Swain MG, Heathcote J, McHutchison J, et al. A phase 2 study to assess antiviral response, safety, and pharmacokinetics of Albuferon in IFN-alpha naive subjects with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol 2005; 42( Suppl 2): 9.
  • 84
    Horsmans Y, Berg T, Desager JP, Muller T, Schott E, Baumann L, et al. Isatoribine, a toll-like receptor 7 agonist, significantly reduced plasma viral load in a clinical proof-of-concept study in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology 2004; 40( Suppl 1): 282A283A.
  • 85
    McHutchison JG, Bacon BR, Gordon SC, Lawitz E, Shiffman M, Afdhal NH, et al. Immunophenotyping profile of CPG 10101, a new TLR9 agonist antiviral for hepatitis C. Hepatology 2005; 42( Suppl 1): 539A.
  • 86
    Gish RG, Nelson D, Arora S, Fried MW, Reddy KR, Xu Y, et al. Virologic response and safety outcomes in therapy-naive patients treated for chronic hepatitis C with viramidine in combination with pegylated interferon alpha-2a. J Hepatol 2005; 42( Suppl 2): 39.
  • 87
    Penin F. Structural biology of hepatitis C virus. Clin Liver Dis 2003; 7: 121.
  • 88
    Gordon SC, Bacon BR, Jacobson IM, Shiffman ML, Afdhal NH, Yu RZ, et al. Treatment of chronic hepatitis C with ISIS 14803, an antisense inhibitor of HCV, given for 12 weeks. Hepatology 2003; 38( Suppl1): 306A307A.
  • 89
    Soler M, McHutchison JG, Kwoh TJ, Dorr FA, Pawlotsky JM. Virological effects of ISIS 14803, an antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES), on HCV IRES in chronic hepatitis C patients and examination into the potential role of primary and secondary HCV resistance in the outcome of treatment. Antiviral Ther 2004; 9: 953968.
  • 90
    Hinrichsen H, Benhamou Y, Wedemeyer H, Reiser M, Sentjens RE, Calleja JL, et al. Short-term antiviral efficacy of BILN 2061, a hepatitis C virus serine protease inhibitor, in hepatitis C genotype 1 patients. Gastroenterology 2004; 127: 13471355.
  • 91
    Reesink H, Zeuzem S, Weegink C, Forestier N, van Vliet A, van de Wetering de Rooij J, et al. Final results of a phase 1B, multiple-dose study of VX-950, a hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor. Hepatology 2005; 42( Suppl 1): 234A235A.
  • 92
    Zeuzem S, Sarrazin C, Rouzier R, Tarral A, Brion N, Forestier N, et al. Antiviral activity of SCH-503034, a HCV protease inhibitor administered as monotherapy in hepatitis C genotype 1 (HCV-1) patients refractory to pegylated interferon. Hepatology 2005; 42( Suppl 2): 233A234A.
  • 93
    Sarrazin C, Kiefer T, Bartels D, Hanzelka B, Muh U, Welker M, et al. Characterization of viral variants in the HCV NS3 protease domain of genotype 1 patients that are selected during 14 days of dosing with VX-950. Hepatology 2005; 42( Suppl 1): 751A.
  • 94
    O'Brien C, Godofsky E, Rodriguez-Torres M, Afdhal NH, Pappas SC, Pockros P, et al. Randomized trial of valopicitabine (NM283), alone or with peginterferon, vs retreatment with peginterferon plus ribavirin in hepatitis C patients with previous non response to peginterferon-ribavirin: first interim results. Hepatology 2005; 42( Suppl 1): 234A.
  • 95
    Wakita T, Pietschmann T, Kato T, Date T, Miyamoto M, Zhao Z, et al. Production of infectious hepatitis C virus in tissue culture from a cloned viral genome. Nat Med 2005; 11: 791796.
  • 96
    Zhong J, Gastaminza P, Cheng G, Kapadia S, Kato T, Burton DR, et al. Robust hepatitis C virus infection in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005; 102: 92949299.
  • 97
    Buckheit RW Jr. Understanding HIV resistance, fitness, replication capacity and compensation: targeting viral fitness as a therapeutic strategy. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2004; 13: 933958.
  • 98
    Pawlotsky JM. Hepatitis C virus genetic variability: pathogenic and clinical implications. Clin Liver Dis 2003; 7: 4566.
  • 99
    Migliaccio G, Tomassini JE, Carroll SS, Tomei L, Altamura S, Bhat B, et al. Characterization of resistance to non-obligate chain-terminating ribonucleoside analogs that inhibit hepatitis C virus replication in vitro. J Biol Chem 2003; 278: 4916449170.
  • 100
    Lin C, Lin K, Luong YP, Rao BG, Wei YY, Brennan DL, et al. In vitro resistance studies of hepatitis C virus serine protease inhibitors, VX-950 and BILN 2061: structural analysis indicates different resistance mechanisms. J Biol Chem 2004; 279: 1750817514.
  • 101
    Lin C, Gates CA, Rao BG, Brennan DL, Fulghum JR, Luong YP, et al. In vitro studies of cross-resistance mutations against two hepatitis C virus serine protease inhibitors, VX-950 and BILN 2061. J Biol Chem 2005; 280: 3678436791.
  • 102
    Richman DD. The impact of drug resistance on the effectiveness of chemotherapy for chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 2000; 32: 866867.
  • 103
    Inchauspe G, Feinstone S. Development of a hepatitis C virus vaccine. Clin Liver Dis 2003; 7: 243259, xi.
  • 104
    Radkowski M, Gallegos-Orozco JF, Jablonska J, Colby TV, Walewska-Zielecka B, Kubicka J, et al. Persistence of hepatitis C virus in patients successfully treated for chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2005; 41: 106114.
  • 105
    Pham TN, MacParland SA, Mulrooney PM, Cooksley H, Naoumov NV, Michalak TI. Hepatitis C virus persistence after spontaneous or treatment-induced resolution of hepatitis C. J Virol 2004; 78: 58675874.