• 1
    Altman JD, Moss PAH, Goulder PJR, Barouch DH, McHeyzer Williams MG, Bell JI, et al. Phenotypic analysis of antigen-specific T lymphocytes. Science 1996; 274: 9496.
  • 2
    Novak EJ, Liu AW, Nepom GT, Kwok WW. MHC class II tetramers identify peptide-specific human CD4(+) T cells proliferating in response to influenza A antigen. J Clin Invest 1999; 104: R6367.
  • 3
    Schauer U, Jung T, Krug N, Frew A. Measurement of intracellular cytokines. Immunol Today 1996; 17: 305307.
  • 4
    Miyahira Y, Murata K, Rodriguez D, Rodriguez JR, Esteban M, Rodrigues MM, et al. Quantification of antigen specific CD8+ T cells using an ELISPOT assay. J Immunol Methods 1995; 181: 4554.
  • 5
    Germain RN. MHC-dependent antigen processing and peptide presentation: providing ligands for T lymphocyte activation. Cell 1994; 76: 287299.
  • 6
    Cerny A, McHutchison JG, Pasquinelli C, Brown ME, Brothers MA, Grabscheid B, et al. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to hepatitis C virus-derived peptides containing the HLA A2.1 binding motif. J Clin Invest 1995; 95: 521530.
  • 7
    Lauer GM, Ouchi K, Chung RT, Nguyen TN, Day CL, Purkis DR, et al. Comprehensive analysis of CD8(+)-T-cell responses against hepatitis C virus reveals multiple unpredicted specificities. J Virol 2002; 76: 61046113.
  • 8
    Lauer GM, Barnes E, Lucas M, Timm J, Ouchi K, Kim AY, et al. High resolution analysis of cellular immune responses in resolved and persistent hepatitis C virus infection. Gastroenterology 2004; 127: 924936.
  • 9
    Urbani S, Amadei B, Fisicaro P, Pilli M, Missale G, Bertoletti A, et al. Heterologous T cell immunity in severe hepatitis C virus infection. J Exp Med 2005; 201: 675680.
  • 10
    Cox AL, Mosbruger T, Lauer GM, Pardoll D, Thomas DL, Ray SC. Comprehensive analyses of CD8+ T cell responses during longitudinal study of acute human hepatitis C. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42: 104112.
  • 11
    Missale G, Bertoni R, Lamonaca V, Valli A, Massari M, Mori C, et al. Different clinical behaviors of acute hepatitis C virus infection are associated with different vigor of the anti-viral cell-mediated immune response. J Clin Invest 1996; 98: 706714.
  • 12
    Diepolder HM, Zachoval R, Hoffmann RM, Wierenga E, Santantonio T, Jung MC, et al. Possible mechanism involving T-lymphocyte response to non-structural protein 3 in viral clearance in acute hepatitis C virus infection. Lancet 1995; 346: 10061007.
  • 13
    Koziel M, Dudley D, Afdhal N, Grakoui A, Rice C, Choo Q, et al. HLA class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for hepatitis C virus: identification of multiple epitopes and characterization of patterns of cytokine release. J Clin Invest 1995; 96: 23112321 issn: 0021–9738.
  • 14
    Rehermann B, Chang KM, McHutchison JG, Kokka R, Houghton M, Chisari FV. Quantitative analysis of the peripheral blood cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. J Clin Invest 1996; 98: 14321440.
  • 15
    Kuwano K, Reyes VE, Humphreys RE, Ennis FA. Recognition of disparate HA and NS1 peptides by an H-2Kd-restricted, influenza specific CTL clone. Mol Immunol 1991; 28: 17.
  • 16
    Anderson RW, Bennink JR, Yewdell JW, Maloy WL, Coligan JE. Influenza basic polymerase 2 peptides are recognized by influenza nucleoprotein-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Mol Immunol 1992; 29: 10891096.
  • 17
    Welsh RM, Selin LK. No one is naive: the significance of heterologous T-cell immunity. Nat Rev Immunol 2002; 2: 417426.
  • 18
    Wedemeyer H, Mizukoshi E, Davis AR, Bennink JR, Rehermann B. Cross-reactivity between hepatitis C virus and Influenza A virus determinant-specific cytotoxic T cells. J Virol 2001; 75: 1139211400.
  • 19
    Urbani S, Boni C, Amadei B, Fisicaro P, Cerioni S, Valli MA, et al. Acute phase HBV-specific T cell responses associated with HBV persistence after HBV/HCV coinfection. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 41: 826831.
  • 20
    Scognamiglio P, Accapezzato D, Casciaro MA, Cacciani A, Artini M, Bruno G, et al. Presence of effector CD8+ T cells in hepatitis C virus-exposed healthy seronegative donors. J Immunol 1999; 162: 66816689.
  • 21
    Koziel MJ, Wong DK, Dudley D, Houghton M, Walker BD. Hepatitis C virus-specific cytolytic T lymphocyte and T helper cell responses in seronegative persons. J Infect Dis 1997; 176: 859866.
  • 22
    Takaki A, Wiese M, Maertens G, Depla E, Seifert U, Liebetrau A, et al. Cellular immune responses persist and humoral responses decreases two decades after recovery from a single-source outbreak of hepatitis Cl. Nature Med 2000; 6: 578582.
  • 23
    He X-S, Rehermann B, Lopez-Labrador FX, Boisvert J, Cheung R, Mumm J, et al. Quantitative analysis of hepatitis C virus-specific CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood and liver using peptide-MHC tetramers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999; 96: 56925697.
  • 24
    Lechner F, Gruener NH, Urbani S, Uggeri J, Santantonio T, Kammer AR, et al. CD8+ T lymphocyte responses are induced during acute hepatitis C virus infection but are not sustained. Eur J Immunol 2000; 30: 24792487.
  • 25
    Urbani S, Boni C, Missale G, Elia G, Cavallo C, Massari M, et al. Virus-specific CD8+ lymphocytes share the same effector-memory phenotype but exhibit functional differences in acute hepatitis B and C. J Virol 2002; 76: 1242312434.
  • 26
    Penna A, Chisari FV, Bertoletti A, Missale G, Fowler P, Giuberti T, et al. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize an HLA-A2-restricted epitope within the hepatitis B virus nucleocapsid antigen. J Exp Med 1991; 174: 15651570.
  • 27
    Rehermann B, Chang KM, McHutchinson J, Kokka R, Houghton M, Rice CM, et al. Differential cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responsiveness to the hepatitis B and C viruses in chronically infected patients. J Virol 1996; 70: 70927102.
  • 28
    Webster GJ, Reignat S, Brown D, Ogg GS, Jones L, Seneviratne SL, et al. Longitudinal analysis of CD8+ T cells specific for structural and nonstructural hepatitis B virus proteins in patients with chronic hepatitis B: implications for immunotherapy. J Virol 2004; 78: 57075719.
  • 29
    Castillo I, Pardo M, Bartolome J, Ortiz-Movilla N, Rodriguez-Inigo E, de Lucas S, et al. Occult hepatitis C virus infection in patients in whom the etiology of persistently abnormal results of liver-function tests is unknown. J Infect Dis 2004; 189: 714.
  • 30
    Berasain C, Betes M, Panizo A, Ruiz J, Herrero JI, Civeira MP, et al. Pathological and virological findings in patients with persistent hypertransaminasaemia of unknown aetiology. Gut 2000; 47: 429435.
  • 31
    Hausmann S, Wucherpfennig KW. Activation of autoreactive T cells by peptides from human pathogens. Curr Opin Immunol 1997; 9: 831838.
  • 32
    Hemmer B, Gran B, Zhao Y, Marques A, Pascal J, Tzou A, et al. Identification of candidate T-cell epitopes and molecular mimics in chronic Lyme disease. Nat Med 1999; 5: 13751382.
  • 33
    Kamal SM, Amin A, Madwar M, Graham CS, He Q, Al Tawil A, et al. Cellular immune responses in seronegative sexual contacts of acute hepatitis C patients. J Virol 2004; 78: 1225212258.
  • 34
    Accapezzato D, Francavilla V, Paroli M, Casciaro M, Chircu LV, Cividini A, et al. Hepatic expansion of a virus-specific regulatory CD8(+) T cell population in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. J Clin Invest 2004; 113: 963972.
  • 35
    Spangenberg HC, Viazov S, Kersting N, Neumann-Haefelin C, McKinney D, Roggendorf M, et al. Intrahepatic CD8+ T-cell failure during chronic hepatitis C virus infection. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42: 828837.