• 1
    Van Snick J. Interleukin-6: an overview. Annu Rev Immunol 1990; 8: 253278.
  • 2
    Zimmers TA, Davies MV, Koniaris LG, Haynes P, Esquela AF, Tomkinson KN, et al. Induction of cachexia in mice by systemically administered myostatin. Science 2002; 296: 14861488.
  • 3
    Streetz KL, Luedde T, Manns MP, Trautwein C. Interleukin 6 and liver regeneration. Gut 2000; 47: 309312.
  • 4
    Yamada Y, Kirillova I, Peschon JJ, Fausto N. Initiation of liver growth by tumor necrosis factor: deficient liver regeneration in mice lacking type I tumor necrosis factor receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1997; 94: 14411446.
  • 5
    Kovalovich K, Li W, DeAngelis R, Greenbaum LE, Ciliberto G, Taub R. Interleukin-6 protects against Fas-mediated death by establishing a critical level of anti-apoptotic hepatic proteins FLIP, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL. J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 2660526613.
  • 6
    Sakamoto T, Liu Z, Murase N, Ezure T, Yokomuro S, Poli V, Demetris AJ. Mitosis and apoptosis in the liver of interleukin-6-deficient mice after partial hepatectomy. HEPATOLOGY 1999; 29: 403411.
  • 7
    Hong F, Kim WH, Tian Z, Jaruga B, Ishac E, Shen X, et al. Elevated interleukin-6 during ethanol consumption acts as a potential endogenous protective cytokine against ethanol-induced apoptosis in the liver: involvement of induction of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L) proteins. Oncogene 2002; 21: 3243.
  • 8
    El Assal O, Hong F, Kim WH, Radaeva S, Gao B. IL-6 deficient mice are susceptible to ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis: IL-6 protects against ethanol-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial permeability transition in the liver. Cell Mol Immunol 2004; 1: 205211.
  • 9
    Martinez OM, Krams SM, Sterneck M, Villanueva JC, Falco DA, Ferrell LD, et al. Intragraft cytokine profile during human liver allograft rejection. Transplantation 1992; 53: 449456.
  • 10
    Hill DB, Marsano L, Cohen D, Allen J, Shedlofsky S, McClain CJ. Increased plasma interleukin-6 concentrations in alcoholic hepatitis. J Lab Clin Med 1992; 119: 547552.
  • 11
    Diehl AM. Cytokines and the molecular mechanisms of alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1999; 23: 14191424.
  • 12
    Laso FJ, Iglesias-Osma C, Ciudad J, Lopez A, Pastor I, Orfao A. Chronic alcoholism is associated with an imbalanced production of Th-1/Th-2 cytokines by peripheral blood T cells. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1999; 23: 13061311.
  • 13
    Torbenson M, Yang SQ, Liu HZ, Huang J, Gage W, Diehl AM. STAT-3 overexpression and p21 up-regulation accompany impaired regeneration of fatty livers. Am J Pathol 2002; 161: 155161.
  • 14
    Zimmers TA, McKillop IH, Pierce RH, Yoo JY, Koniaris LG. Massive liver growth in mice induced by systemic interleukin 6 administration. HEPATOLOGY 2003; 38: 326334.
  • 15
    Lukashevich IS, Tikhonov I, Rodas JD, Zapata JC, Yang Y, Djavani M, et al. Arenavirus-mediated liver pathology: acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection of rhesus macaques is characterized by high-level interleukin-6 expression and hepatocyte proliferation. J Virol 2003; 77: 17271737.
  • 16
    Peters M, Blinn G, Jostock T, Schirmacher P, Meyer zum Buschenfelde KH, Galle PR, et al. Combined interleukin-6 and soluble interleukin-6 receptor accelerates murine liver regeneration. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 16631671.
  • 17
    Sheron N, Bird G, Goka J, Alexander G, Williams R. Elevated plasma interleukin-6 and increased severity and mortality in alcoholic hepatitis. Clin Exp Immunol 1991; 84: 449453.
  • 18
    Sheron N, Lau JN, Hofmann J, Williams R, Alexander GJ. Dose-dependent increase in plasma interleukin-6 after recombinant tumour necrosis factor infusion in humans. Clin Exp Immunol 1990; 82: 427428.
  • 19
    Yang SQ, Lin HZ, Mandal AK, Huang J, Diehl AM. Disrupted signaling and inhibited regeneration in obese mice with fatty livers: implications for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease pathophysiology. HEPATOLOGY 2001; 34: 694706.
  • 20
    Wuestefeld T, Rakemann T, Kubicka S, Manns MP, Trautwein C. Hyperstimulation with interleukin 6 inhibits cell cycle progression after hepatectomy in mice. HEPATOLOGY 2000; 32: 514522.
  • 21
    Higgins GM, Anderson RM. Experimental pathology of the liver I. Restoration of the liver of the white rat following partial surgical removal. Arch Pathol 1931; 12: 186202.
  • 22
    Koniaris LG, McKillop IH, Schwartz SI, Zimmers TA. Liver regeneration. J Am Coll Surg 2003; 197: 634659.
  • 23
    Zimmers TA, Pierce RH, McKillop IH, Koniaris LG. Resolving the role of IL-6 in liver regeneration. HEPATOLOGY 2003; 38: 15901591; author reply 1591.
  • 24
    Taub R. Hepatoprotection via the IL-6/Stat3 pathway. J Clin Invest 2003; 112: 978980.
  • 25
    Haga S, Terui K, Zhang HQ, Enosawa S, Ogawa W, Inoue H, et al. Stat3 protects against Fas-induced liver injury by redox-dependent and -independent mechanisms. J Clin Invest 2003; 112: 989998.
  • 26
    Xanthoudakis S, Miao GG, Curran T. The redox and DNA-repair activities of Ref-1 are encoded by nonoverlapping domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994; 91: 2327.
  • 27
    Yoo YH, Lim YJ, Park SE, Kim JM, Park YC. Overexpression of redox factor-1 negatively regulates NO synthesis and apoptosis in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. FEBS Lett 2004; 556: 3942.
  • 28
    Angkeow P, Deshpande SS, Qi B, Liu YX, Park YC, Jeon BH, et al. Redox factor-1: an extra-nuclear role in the regulation of endothelial oxidative stress and apoptosis. Cell Death Differ 2002; 9: 717725.
  • 29
    Peter ME. The flip side of FLIP. Biochem J 2004; 382: e13.
  • 30
    Danial NN, Korsmeyer SJ. Cell death: critical control points. Cell 2004; 116: 205219.
  • 31
    Susin SA, Lorenzo HK, Zamzami N, Marzo I, Snow BE, Brothers GM, et al. Molecular characterization of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor. Nature 1999; 397: 441446.
  • 32
    Selzner N, Selzner M, Tian Y, Kadry Z, Clavien PA. Cold ischemia decreases liver regeneration after partial liver transplantation in the rat: A TNF-alpha/IL-6-dependent mechanism. HEPATOLOGY 2002; 36: 812818.
  • 33
    Sun Z, Klein AS, Radaeva S, Hong F, El-Assal O, Pan HN, et al. In vitro interleukin-6 treatment prevents mortality associated with fatty liver transplants in rats. Gastroenterology 2003; 125: 202215.
  • 34
    Selzner M, Camargo CA, Clavien PA. Ischemia impairs liver regeneration after major tissue loss in rodents: protective effects of interleukin-6. HEPATOLOGY 1999; 30: 469475.
  • 35
    Hong F, Radaeva S, Pan HN, Tian Z, Veech R, Gao B. Interleukin 6 alleviates hepatic steatosis and ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice with fatty liver disease. HEPATOLOGY 2004; 40: 933941.
  • 36
    Senn JJ, Klover PJ, Nowak IA, Zimmers TA, Koniaris LG, Furlanetto RW, et al. Suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3), a potential mediator of interleukin-6-dependent insulin resistance in hepatocytes. J Biol Chem 2003; 278: 1374013746.
  • 37
    Klover PJ, Zimmers TA, Koniaris LG, Mooney RA. Chronic exposure to interleukin-6 causes hepatic insulin resistance in mice. Diabetes 2003; 52: 27842789.
  • 38
    Chen NL, Bai L, Li L, Chen PL, Zhang C, Liu CY, et al. Apoptosis pathway of liver cells in chronic hepatitis. World J Gastroenterol 2004; 10: 32013204.
  • 39
    Walsh MJ, Vanags DM, Clouston AD, Richardson MM, Purdie DM, Jonsson JR, et al. Steatosis and liver cell apoptosis in chronic hepatitis C: a mechanism for increased liver injury. HEPATOLOGY 2004; 39: 12301238.
  • 40
    Ehrmann J Jr., Galuszkova D, Ehrmann J, Krc I, Jezdinska V, Vojtesek B, et al. Apoptosis-related proteins, BCL-2, BAX, FAS, FAS-L and PCNA in liver biopsies of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Pathol Oncol Res 2000; 6: 130135.
  • 41
    Messaris E, Antonakis PT, Memos N, Chatzigianni E, Leandros E, Konstadoulakis MM. Deferoxamine administration in septic animals: improved survival and altered apoptotic gene expression. Int Immunopharmacol 2004; 4: 455459.
  • 42
    Campbell JS, Prichard L, Schaper F, Schmitz J, Stephenson-Famy A, Rosenfeld ME, et al. Expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling during liver regeneration. J Clin Invest 2001; 107: 12851292.