• 1
    Wyke RJ. Problems of bacterial infection in patients with liver disease. Gut 1987; 28: 623641.
  • 2
    Chang CS, Yang SS, Kao CH, Yeh HZ, Chen GH. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth versus antimicrobial capacity in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 2001; 36: 9296.
  • 3
    Yeh DC, Wu CC, Ho WM, Cheng SB, Lu IY, Liu TJ, et al. Bacterial translocation after cirrhotic liver resection: a clinical investigation of 181 patients. J Surg Res 2003; 111: 209214.
  • 4
    Llovet JM, Bartoli R, Planas R, Cabre E, Jimenez M, Urban A, et al. Bacterial translocation in cirrhotic rats. Its role in the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gut 1994; 35: 16481652.
  • 5
    Di Leo V, Venturi C, Baragiotta A, Martines D, Floreani A. Gastroduodenal and intestinal permeability in primary biliary cirrhosis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2003; 15: 967973.
  • 6
    Fromkes JJ, Thomas FB, Kraut EH. Activation of the alternative complement pathway in ascitic fluid during spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. J Clin Gastroenterol 1982; 4: 347350.
  • 7
    Guarner C, Runyon BA, Young S, Heck M, Sheikh MY. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth and bacterial translocation in cirrhotic rats with ascites. J Hepatol 1997; 26: 13721378.
  • 8
    Prabhu R, Balasubramanian KA. Altered glycosylation of surfactant and brush border membrane of the small intestine in response to surgical manipulation. J Surg Res 2004; 117: 272282.
  • 9
    Delmotte P, Degroote S, Lafitte JJ, Lamblin G, Perini JM, Roussel P. Tumor necrosis factor alpha increases the expression of glycosyltransferases and sulfotransferases responsible for the biosynthesis of sialylated and/or sulfated Lewis x epitopes in the human bronchial mucosa. J Biol Chem 2002; 277: 424431.
  • 10
    Tatsumi Y, Kodama T, Kashima K, Ohkuma S, Kuriyama K. Inhibition of gastric glucosamine synthetase activity by oxygen radicals: a possible cause of decreased mucosal protective capacity. Jpn J Pharmacol 1992; 58: 391398.
  • 11
    Thomas S, Kang G, Balasubramanian KA. Surgical manipulation of the intestine results in quantitative and qualitative alterations in luminal Escherichia coli. Ann Surg 2004; 240: 248254.
  • 12
    Ramachandran A, Prabhu R, Thomas S, Reddy JB, Pulimood A, Balasubramanian KA. Intestinal mucosal alterations in experimental cirrhosis in the rat: role of oxygen free radicals. HEPATOLOGY 2002; 35: 622629.
  • 13
    Anup R, Susama P, Balasubramanian KA. Role of xanthine oxidase in small bowel mucosal dysfunction after surgical stress. Br J Surg 2000; 87: 10941101.
  • 14
    Ramachandran A, Balasubramanian KA. Intestinal dysfunction in liver cirrhosis: its role in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001; 16: 607612.
  • 15
    Proctor E, Chatamra K. High yield micronodular cirrhosis in the rat. Gastroenterology 1982; 83: 11831190.
  • 16
    Jamall IS, Finelli VN, Que Hee SS. A simple method to determine nanogram levels of 4-hydroxyproline in biological tissues. Anal Biochem 1981; 112: 7075.
  • 17
    Reitman S, Frankel S. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am J Clin Pathol 1957; 28: 5663.
  • 18
    Dorai DT, Bachhawat BK. Purification and properties of brain alkaline phosphatase. J Neurochem 1977; 29: 503512.
  • 19
    Shihabi ZK, Scaro J. A modified Malloy-Evelyn procedure for total bilirubin in microsamples. Am J Med Technol 1977; 43: 10041007.
  • 20
    Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 1951; 193: 265275.
  • 21
    Masola B, Evered DF. Preparation of rat enterocyte mitochondria. Biochem J 1984; 218: 441447.
  • 22
    Madesh M, Ramachandran A, Balasubramanian KA. Nitric oxide prevents anoxia-induced apoptosis in colonic HT29 cells. Arch Biochem Biophys 1999; 366: 240248.
  • 23
    Takeyama N, Matsuo N, Tanaka T. Oxidative damage to mitochondria is mediated by the Ca(2+)-dependent inner-membrane permeability transition. Biochem J 1993; 294(Pt 3): 719725.
  • 24
    Madesh M, Bhaskar L, Balasubramanian KA. Enterocyte viability and mitochondrial function after graded intestinal ischemia and reperfusion in rats. Mol Cell Biochem 1997; 167: 8187.
  • 25
    Prabhu R, Balasubramanian KA. A novel method of preparation of small intestinal brush border membrane vesicles by polyethylene glycol precipitation. Anal Biochem 2001; 289: 157161.
  • 26
    Eliakim R, DeSchryver-Kecskemeti K, Nogee L, Stenson WF, Alpers DH. Isolation and characterization of a small intestinal surfactant-like particle containing alkaline phosphatase and other digestive enzymes. J Biol Chem 1989; 264: 2061420619.
  • 27
    Tiruppathi C, Miyamoto Y, Ganapathy V, Leibach FH. Fatty acid-induced alterations in transport systems of the small intestinal brush-border membrane. Biochem Pharmacol 1988; 37: 13991405.
  • 28
    Djurdjic V, Mandic L. A spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of protein-bound hexoses and fucose with a mixture of L-cysteine and phenol. Anal Biochem 1990; 188: 222227.
  • 29
    Saifer A, Gerstenfeld S. Photometric determination of sialic acids in serum and cerebrospinal fluid with the thiobarbituric acid method. Clin Chim Acta 1962; 7: 467475.
  • 30
    Winzler RJ. Determination of serum glycoproteins. In: ClickD, ed. Methods of Biochemical Analysis. Volume 2. New York: Interscience Publishers, 1955: 292294.
  • 31
    Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979; 95: 351358.
  • 32
    Chan HW, Levett G. Autoxidation of methyl linoleate. Separation and analysis of isomeric mixtures of methyl linoleate hydroperoxides and methyl hydroxylinoleates. Lipids 1977; 12: 99104.
  • 33
    Sohal RS, Agarwal S, Dubey A, Orr WC. Protein oxidative damage is associated with life expectancy of houseflies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993; 90: 72557259.
  • 34
    Parks DA, Williams TK, Beckman JS. Conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to oxidase in ischemic rat intestine: a reevaluation. Am J Physiol 1988; 254: G768774.
  • 35
    Kang G, Mathan MM, Mathan VI. Evaluation of a simplified HEp-2 cell adherence assay for Escherichia coli isolated from south Indian children with acute diarrhea and controls. J Clin Microbiol 1995; 33: 22042205.
  • 36
    Swiatlo E, Champlin FR, Holman SC, Wilson WW, Watt JM. Contribution of choline-binding proteins to cell surface properties of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect Immun 2002; 70: 412415.
  • 37
    Schaeffer A, Amundsen SK, Jones J. Effect of carbohydrates on adherence of Escherichia coli to human urinary tract epithelial cells. Infect Immun 1980; 30: 531.
  • 38
    Czeczulin JR, Balepur S, Hicks S, Phillips A, Hall R, Kothary MH, et al. Aggregative adherence fimbria II, a second fimbrial antigen mediating aggregative adherence in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. Infect Immun 1997; 65: 41354145.
  • 39
    Madrid AM, Cumsille F, Defilippi C. Altered small bowel motility in patients with liver cirrhosis depends on severity of liver disease. Dig Dis Sci 1997; 42: 738742.
  • 40
    Perez-Paramo M, Munoz J, Albillos A, Freile I, Portero F, Santos M, et al. Effect of propranolol on the factors promoting bacterial translocation in cirrhotic rats with ascites. HEPATOLOGY 2000; 31: 4348.
  • 41
    Gunnarsdottir SA, Sadik R, Shev S, Simren M, Sjovall H, Stotzer PO, et al. Small intestinal motility disturbances and bacterial overgrowth in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98: 13621370.
    Direct Link:
  • 42
    Madrid AM, Hurtado C, Venegas M, Cumsille F, Defilippi C. Long-term treatment with cisapride and antibiotics in liver cirrhosis: effect on small intestinal motility, bacterial overgrowth, and liver function. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 12511255.
    Direct Link:
  • 43
    Grange P, Mouricout M. Transferrin associated with the porcine intestinal mucosa is a receptor specific for K88ab fimbriae of Escherichia coli. Infect Immun 1996; 64: 606610.
  • 44
    Helander A, Hansson GC, Svennerholm AM. Binding of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli expressing coli surface antigen 6 to rabbit intestinal enterocytes and glycoproteins. Adv Exp Med Biol 1997; 412: 257258.
  • 45
    Mojzis J, Hegedusova R, Mirossay L. Role of mucus in ischemia/reperfusion-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Physiol Res 2000; 49: 441446.
  • 46
    Alexander JW, Boyce ST, Babcock GF, Gianotti L, Peck MD, Dunn DL, et al. The process of microbial translocation. Ann Surg 1990; 212: 496510; discussion 511–492.