SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2000. JAMA 2002; 288: 17231727.
  • 2
    Hedley AA, Ogden CL, Johnson CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, Flegal KM. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children, adolescents, and adults, 1999-2002. JAMA 2004; 291: 28472850.
  • 3
    Bressler BL, Guindi M, Tomlinson G, Heathcote J. High body mass index is an independent risk factor for nonresponse to antiviral treatment in chronic hepatitis C. HEPATOLOGY 2003; 38: 639644.
  • 4
    Cammà C, Di Bona D, Schepis F, Heathcote EJ, Zeuzem S, Pockros PJ, et al. Effect of peginterferon alfa-2a on liver histology in chronic hepatitis C: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. HEPATOLOGY 2004; 39: 333342.
  • 5
    Younossi ZM, McCullough AJ, Ong JP, Barnes DS, Post A, Tavill A, et al. Obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in chronic hepatitis C. J Clin Gastroenterol 2004; 38: 705709.
  • 6
    Patton HM, Patel K, Behling C, Bylund D, Blatt LM, Vallée M, et al. The impact of steatosis on disease progression and early and sustained treatment response in chronic hepatitis C patients. J Hepatol 2004; 40: 484490.
  • 7
    Ortiz V, Berenguer M, Rayon JM, Carrasco D, Berenguer J. Contribution of obesity to hepatitis C-related fibrosis progression. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97: 24082414.
    Direct Link:
  • 8
    Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet Med 1998; 15: 539553.
  • 9
    International Diabetes Federation. The IDF consensus worldwide definition of the metabolic syndrome. Available at: http://www.idf.org/home/index.cfm?node=1429. Accessed March 30, 2006.
  • 10
    Nesto RW. Obesity: a major component of the metabolic syndrome. Tex Heart Inst J 2005; 32: 387389.
  • 11
    Kahn R, Buse J, Ferrannini E, Stern M. The metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal. Joint statement from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetologia 2005; 48: 16841699.
  • 12
    Ford ES, Giles WH, Mokdad AH. Increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among U.S. adults. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 24442449.
  • 13
    Ford ES. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome defined by the International Diabetes Federation among adults in the U.S. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 27452749.
  • 14
    Hwang SJ, Luo JC, Chu CW, Lai CR, Lu CL, Tsay SH, et al. Hepatic steatosis in chronic hepatitis C virus infection: prevalence and clinical correlation. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001; 16: 190195.
  • 15
    Adinolfi LE, Gambardella M, Andreana A, Tripodi MF, Utili R, Ruggiero G. Steatosis accelerates the progression of liver damage of chronic hepatitis C patients and correlates with specific HCV genotype and visceral obesity. HEPATOLOGY 2001; 33: 13581364.
  • 16
    Hu KQ, Kyulo NL, Esrailian E, Thompson K, Chase R, Hillebrand DJ, et al. Overweight and obesity, hepatic steatosis, and progression of chronic hepatitis C: a retrospective study on a large cohort of patients in the United States. J Hepatol 2004; 40: 147154.
  • 17
    Wellens RI, Roche AF, Khamis HJ, Jackson AS, Pollock ML, Siervogel RM. Relationships between the body mass index and body composition. Obes Res 1996; 4: 3544.
  • 18
    McCullough AJ. Obesity and its nurturing effect on hepatitis C. HEPATOLOGY 2003; 38: 557559.
  • 19
    Ramesh S, Sanyal AJ. Hepatitis C and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Semin Liver Dis 2004; 24: 399413.
  • 20
    Jansen PLM. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004; 16: 10791085.
  • 21
    Medina J, Fernández-Salazar LI, García-Buey L, Moreno-Otero R. Approach to the pathogenesis and treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 20572066.
  • 22
    Younossi ZM, Diehl AM, Ong JP. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: an agenda for clinical research. HEPATOLOGY 2002; 35: 746752.
  • 23
    Browning JD, Szczepaniak LS, Dobbins R, Nuremberg P, Horton JD, Cohen JC, et al. Prevalence of hepatic steatosis in an urban population in the United States: impact of ethnicity. HEPATOLOGY 2004; 40: 13871395.
  • 24
    Poynard T, Ratziu V, McHutchison J, Manns M, Goodman Z, Zeuzem S, et al. Effect of treatment with peginterferon or interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin on steatosis in patients infected with hepatitis C. HEPATOLOGY 2003; 38: 7585.
  • 25
    Lecube A, Hernández C, Genescà J, Esteban JI, Jardí R, Simó R. High prevalence of glucose abnormalities in patients with hepatitis C virus infection: a multivariate analysis considering the liver injury. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 11711175.
  • 26
    Hui JM, Sud A, Farrell GC, Bandara P, Byth K, Kench JG, et al. Insulin resistance is associated with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and fibrosis progression. Gastroenterology 2003; 125: 16951704.
  • 27
    Strader DB, Wright T, Thomas DL, Seeff LB. AASLD practice guideline: diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C. HEPATOLOGY 2004; 39: 11471171.
  • 28
    Stark GR, Kerr IM, Williams BRG, Silverman RH, Schreiber RD. How cells respond to interferons. Annu Rev Biochem 1998; 67: 227264.
  • 29
    Bocci V. Evaluation of routes of administration of interferon in cancer: a review and a proposal. Cancer Drug Deliv 1984; 1: 337351.
  • 30
    Perry CM, Jarvis B. Peginterferon-alpha-2a (40 kD): a review of its use in the management of chronic hepatitis C. Drugs 2001; 61: 22632288.
  • 31
    Glue P, Fang JWS, Rouzier-Panis R, Raffanel C, Sabo R, Gupta S, Salfi M et al. Pegylated interferon-alpha2b: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, and preliminary efficacy data. Hepatitis C Intervention Therapy Group. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 68: 556567.
  • 32
    Bailon P, Palleroni A, Schaffer CA, Spence CL, Fung WJ, Porter JE, et al. Rational design of a potent, long-lasting form of interferon: a 40 kDa branched polyethylene glycol-conjugated interferon alpha-2a for the treatment of hepatitis C. Bioconjug Chem 2001; 12: 195202.
  • 33
    Manns MP, McHutchison JG, Gordon SC, Rustgi VK, Shiffman M, Reindollar R, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a randomised trial. Lancet 2001; 358: 958965.
  • 34
    Fried MW, Shiffman ML, Reddy KR, Smith C, Marinos G, Gonçales FJ Jr, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 975982.
  • 35
    Lau JYN, Tam RC, Liang TJ, Hong Z. Mechanism of action of ribavirin in the combination treatment of chronic HCV infection. HEPATOLOGY 2002; 35: 10021009.
  • 36
    Young KC, Lindsay KL, Lee KJ, Liu WC, He JW, Milstein SL, et al. Identification of a ribavirin-resistant NS5B mutation of hepatitis C virus during ribavirin monotherapy. HEPATOLOGY 2003; 38: 869878.
  • 37
    Hadziyannis SJ, Sette H Jr, Morgan TR, Balan V, Diago M, Marcellin P, et al. Peginterferon-alpha2a and ribavirin combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C: a randomized study of treatment duration and ribavirin dose. Ann Intern Med 2004; 140: 346355.
  • 38
    Jacobson IM, Brown RS, Freilich B, Afdhal N, Kwo P, Santoro J, et al. Weight-based ribavirin dosing increases sustained viral response in patients with chronic hepatitis C: final results of the WIN-R study, a US community based trial [Abstract LB03]. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42( Suppl 1): 749A.
  • 39
    Gaglio P, Choi J, Zimmerman D, Heller L, Brown RS. Weight based ribavirin in combination with pegylated interferon alpha 2b does not improve sustained viral response in HCV patients who failed prior therapy: results in 454 patients [Abstract 59]. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42( Suppl 1): 219A.
  • 40
    Jeffers LJ, Cassidy W, Howell CD, Hu S, Reddy KR. Peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kd) and ribavirin for black American patients with chronic HCV genotype 1. HEPATOLOGY 2004; 39: 17021708.
  • 41
    Muir AJ, Bornstein JD, Killenberg PG. Peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in blacks and non-Hispanic whites. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 22652271.
  • 42
    Harrison SA, Brunt EM, Qazi RA, Oliver DA, Neuschwander-Tetri BA, Di Bisceglie AM, et al. Effect of significant histologic steatosis or steatohepatitis on response to antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005; 3: 604609.
  • 43
    Romero-Gómez M, Del Mar Viloria M, Andrade RJ, Salmerón J, Diago M, Fernández-Rodríguez CM, et al. Insulin resistance impairs sustained response rate to peginterferon plus ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C patients. Gastroenterology 2005; 128: 636641.
  • 44
    Pockros PJ, Carithers R, Desmond P, Dhumeaux D, Fried MW, Marcellin P, et al. Efficacy and safety of two-dose regimens of peginterferon alpha-2a compared with interferon alpha-2a in chronic hepatitis C: a multicenter, randomized controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol 2004; 99: 12981305.
    Direct Link:
  • 45
    Fantuzzi G. Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005; 115: 911919.
  • 46
    Guerre-Millo M. Adipose tissue and adipokines: for better or worse. Diabetes Metab 2004; 30: 1319.
  • 47
    Tataranni PA, Ortega E. A burning question: does an adipokine-induced activation of the immune system mediate the effect of overnutrition on type 2 diabetes? Diabetes 2005; 54: 917927.
  • 48
    Hui JM, Hodge A, Farrell GC, Kench JG, Kriketos A, George J. Beyond insulin resistance in NASH: TNF-alpha or adiponectin? HEPATOLOGY 2004; 40: 4654.
  • 49
    Correia ML, Haynes WG. Leptin, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2004; 13: 215223.
  • 50
    Loffreda S, Yang SQ, Lin HZ, Karp CL, Brengman ML, Wang DJ, et al. Leptin regulates proinflammatory immune responses. FASEB J 1998; 12: 5765.
  • 51
    Steinman L, Conlon P, Maki R, Foster A. The intricate interplay among body weight, stress, and the immune response to friend or foe. J Clin Invest 2003; 111: 183185.
  • 52
    Mattioli B, Straface E, Quaranta MG, Giordani L, Viora M. Leptin promotes differentiation and survival of human dendritic cells and licenses them for Th1 priming. J Immunol 2005; 174: 68206828.
  • 53
    Lord GM, Matarese G, Howard JK, Baker RJ, Bloom SR, Lechler RI. Leptin modulates the T-cell immune response and reverses starvation-induced immunosuppression. Nature 1998; 394: 897901.
  • 54
    Kamal SM, Fehr J, Roesler B, Peters T, Rasenack JW. Peginterferon alone or with ribavirin enhances HCV-specific CD4+ T-helper 1 responses in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 2002; 123: 10701083.
  • 55
    Aleffi S, Petrai I, Bertolani C, Parola M, Colombatto S, Novo E, et al. Upregulation of proinflammatory and proangiogenic cytokines by leptin in human hepatic stellate cells. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42: 13391348.
  • 56
    Vendrell J, Broch M, Vilarrasa N, Molina A, Gómez JM, Gutiérrez C, et al. Resistin, adiponectin, ghrelin, leptin, and proinflammatory cytokines: relationships in obesity. Obes Res 2004; 12: 962971.
  • 57
    Matsubara M, Maruoka S, Katayose S. Inverse relationship between plasma adiponectin and leptin concentrations in normal-weight and obese women. Eur J Endocrinol 2002; 147: 173180.
  • 58
    Kern PA, Di Gregorio GB, Lu T, Rassouli N, Ranganathan G. Adiponectin expression from human adipose tissue: relation to obesity, insulin resistance, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression. Diabetes 2003; 52: 17791785.
  • 59
    Thakur V, Pritchard MT, McMullen MR, Nagy LE. Adiponectin normalizes LPS-stimulated TNF-alpha production by rat Kupffer cells after chronic ethanol feeding. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2006; 290: 9981007.
  • 60
    Arita Y, Kihara S, Ouchi N, Takahashi M, Maeda K, Miyagawa J, et al. Paradoxical decrease of an adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in obesity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1999; 257: 7983.
  • 61
    Weyer C, Funahashi T, Tanaka S, Hotta K, Matsuzawa Y, Pratley RE, et al. Hypoadiponectinemia in obesity and type 2 diabetes: close association with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86: 19301935.
  • 62
    Sato S, Furuta K, Mishiro T, Miyake T, Kohge N, Akagi S, et al. Serum adiponectin concentration in patients with hepatitis C virus. J Clin Gastroenterol 2005; 39: 744745.
  • 63
    Jonsson JR, Moschen AR, Hickman IJ, Richardson MM, Kaser S, Clouston AD, et al. Adiponectin and its receptors in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol 2005; 43: 929936.
  • 64
    Bortolotti F, Vajro P, Balli F, Giacchino R, Crivellaro C, Barbera C, et al. Non-organ specific autoantibodies in children with chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol 1996; 25: 614620.
  • 65
    Wang AYH, Hickman IJ, Richards AA, Whitehead JP, Prins JB, Macdonald GA. High molecular weight adiponectin correlates with insulin sensitivity in patients with hepatitis C genotype 3, but not genotype 1 infection. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100: 27172723.
    Direct Link:
  • 66
    Larrea E, Garcia N, Qian C, Civeira MP, Prieto J. Tumor necrosis factor alpha gene expression and the response to interferon in chronic hepatitis C. HEPATOLOGY 1996; 23: 210217.
  • 67
    Poniachik J, Csendes A, Diaz JC, Rojas J, Burdiles P, Maluenda F, et al. Increased production of IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated blood from obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Cytokine 2006; 33: 252257.
  • 68
    Ziccardi P, Nappo F, Giugliano G, Esposito K, Marfella R, Cioffi M, et al. Reduction of inflammatory cytokine concentrations and improvement of endothelial functions in obese women after weight loss over one year. Circulation 2002; 105: 804809.
  • 69
    Di Bona D, Cippitelli M, Fionda C, Cammá C, Licata A, Santoni A, et al. Oxidative stress inhibits IFN-alpha-induced antiviral gene expression by blocking the JAK-STAT pathway. J Hepatol 2006 (in press).
  • 70
    Harrison SA. Liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus. J Clin Gastroenterol 2006; 40: 6876.
  • 71
    Harrison SA. Correlation between insulin resistance and hepatitis C viral load. HEPATOLOGY 2006; 44 (in press).
  • 72
    Haag M, Dippenaar NG. Dietary fats, fatty acids and insulin resistance: short review of a multifaceted connection. Med Sci Monit 2005; 11: RA359RA367.
  • 73
    Bray GA. How do we get fat? An epidemiologic and metabolic approach. Clin Dermatol 2004; 22: 281288.
  • 74
    Shintani Y, Fujie H, Miyoshi H, Tsutsumi T, Tsukamoto K, Kimura S, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection and diabetes: direct involvement of the virus in the development of insulin resistance. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: 840848.
  • 75
    Kawaguchi T, Yoshida T, Harada M, Hisamoto T, Nagao Y, Ide T, et al. Hepatitis C virus down-regulates insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 through up-regulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3. Am J Pathol 2004; 165: 14991508.
  • 76
    Ueki K, Kondo T, Kahn CR. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1) and SOCS-3 cause insulin resistance through inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate proteins by discrete mechanisms. Mol Cell Biol 2004; 24: 54345446.
  • 77
    Walsh MJ, Jonsson JR, Richardson MM, Lipka GM, Purdie DM, Clouston AD, et al. Non-response to antiviral therapy is associated with obesity and increased hepatic expression of suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS-3) in patients with chronic hepatitis C, viral genotype 1. Gut 2006; 55: 529535.
  • 78
    Asselah T, Rubbia-Brandt L, Marcellin P, Negro F. Steatosis in chronic hepatitis C: why does it really matter? Gut 2006; 55: 123130.
  • 79
    Fartoux L, Poujol-Robert A, Guéchot J, Wendum D, Poupon R, Serfaty L. Insulin resistance is a cause of steatosis and fibrosis progression in chronic hepatitis C. Gut 2005; 54: 10031008.
  • 80
    Heppner DS, Harrison SA. Obesity, insulin resistance, and HCV: implications for pathogenesis. Curr Heptitis Rep 2005; 4: 153157.
  • 81
    Choudhury J, Sanyal AJ. Insulin resistance and the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Liver Dis 2004; 8: 575594.
  • 82
    Solis-Herruzo JA, Perez-Carreras M, Rivas E, Fernandez-Vazquez I, Garfia C, Bernardos E, et al. Factors associated with the presence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100: 10911098.
    Direct Link:
  • 83
    Walsh MJ, Vanags DM, Clouston AD, Richardson MM, Purdie DM, Jonsson JR, et al. Steatosis and liver cell apoptosis in chronic hepatitis C: a mechanism for increased liver injury. HEPATOLOGY 2004; 39: 12301238.
  • 84
    Seidel N, Volkmann X, Länger F, Flemming P, Manns MP, Schulze-Osthoff K, et al. The extent of liver steatosis in chronic hepatitis C virus infection is mirrored by caspase activity in serum. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42: 113120.
  • 85
    Zhou YT, Grayburn P, Karim A, Shimabukuro M, Higa M, Baetens D, et al. Lipotoxic heart disease in obese rats: implications for human obesity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000; 97: 17841789.
  • 86
    Unger RH. Minireview: weapons of lean body mass destruction: the role of ectopic lipids in the metabolic syndrome. Endocrinology 2003; 144: 51595165.
  • 87
    Romero-Gómez M, Castellano-Megias VM, Grande L, Irles JA, Cruz M, Nogales MC, et al. Serum leptin levels correlate with hepatic steatosis in chronic hepatitis C. Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98: 11351141.
  • 88
    Kaser S, Moschen A, Cayon A, Kaser A, Crespo J, Pons-Romero F, et al. Adiponectin and its receptors in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Gut 2005; 54: 117121.
  • 89
    Petit JM, Minello A, Jooste V, Bour JB, Galland F, Duvillard L, et al. Decreased plasma adiponectin concentrations are closely related to steatosis in hepatitis C virus-infected patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90: 22402243.
  • 90
    Zekry A, McHutchison JG, Diehl AM. Insulin resistance and steatosis in hepatitis C virus infection. Gut 2005; 54: 903906.
  • 91
    Albano E, Mottaran E, Vidali M, Reale E, Saksena S, Occhino G, et al. Immune response towards lipid peroxidation products as a predictor of progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease to advanced fibrosis. Gut 2005; 54: 987993.
  • 92
    Hourigan LF, Macdonald GA, Purdie D, Whitehall VH, Shorthouse C, Clouston A, et al. Fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C correlates significantly with body mass index and steatosis. HEPATOLOGY 1999; 29: 12151219.
  • 93
    Monto A, Alonzo J, Watson JJ, Grunfeld C, Wright TL. Steatosis in chronic hepatitis C: relative contributions of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol. HEPATOLOGY 2002; 36: 729736.
  • 94
    Muzzi A, Leandro G, Rubbia-Brandt L, James R, Keiser O, Malinverni R, et al. Insulin resistance is associated with liver fibrosis in non-diabetic chronic hepatitis C patients. J Hepatol 2005; 42: 4146.
  • 95
    Perumalswami P, Kleiner DE, Lutchman G, Heller T, Borg B, Park Y, et al. Steatosis and progression of fibrosis in untreated patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. HEPATOLOGY 2006; 43: 780787.
  • 96
    Paradis V, Perlemuter G, Bonvoust F, Dargere D, Parfait B, Vidaud M, et al. High glucose and hyperinsulinemia stimulate connective tissue growth factor expression: a potential mechanism involved in progression to fibrosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. HEPATOLOGY 2001; 34: 738744.
  • 97
    Pessayre D, Mansouri A, Fromenty B. Nonalcoholic steatosis and steatohepatitis. V. Mitochondrial dysfunction in steatohepatitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2002; 282: G193G199.
  • 98
    Saxena NK, Ikeda K, Rockey DC, Friedman SL, Anania FA. Leptin in hepatic fibrosis: evidence for increased collagen production in stellate cells and lean littermates of ob/ob mice. HEPATOLOGY 2002; 35: 762771.
  • 99
    Sanyal AJ, Chand N, Comar K, Mirshahi F. Hyperinsulinemia blocks the inhibition of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication by interferon: a potential mechanism for failure of interferon therapy in subjects with HCV and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [Abstract 39]. HEPATOLOGY 2004; 40( Suppl 1): 179A.
  • 100
    Martín J, Navas S, Quiroga JA, Pardo M, Carreño V. Effects of the ribavirin-interferon alpha combination on cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells from chronic hepatitis C patients. Cytokine 1998; 10: 635644.
  • 101
    Fernández M, Quiroga JA, Martín J, Herrero M, Pardo M, Horisberger MA, et al. In vivo and in vitro induction of MxA protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus. J Infect Dis 1999; 180: 262267.
  • 102
    Murashima S, Kumashiro R, Ide T, Miyajima I, Hino T, Koga Y, et al. Effect of interferon treatment on serum 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase levels in hepatitis C-infected patients. J Med Virol 2000; 62: 185190.
  • 103
    Podevin P, Guechot J, Serfaty L, Monrand-Joubert L, Veyrunes C, Bonnefis MT, et al. Evidence for a deficiency of interferon response in mononuclear cells from hepatitis C viremic patients. J Hepatol 1997; 27: 265271.
  • 104
    Lam NP, Pitrak D, Speralakis R, Lau AH, Wiley TE, Layden TJ. Effect of obesity on pharmacokinetics and biologic effect of interferon-alpha in hepatitis C. Dig Dis Sci 1997; 42: 178185.
  • 105
    de Lucas S, Bartolomé J, Carreño V. Hepatitis C virus core protein down-regulates transcription of interferon-induced antiviral genes. J Infect Dis 2005; 191: 9399.
  • 106
    Taguchi T, Nagano-Fujii M, Akutsu M, Kadoya H, Ohgimoto S, Ishido S, et al. Hepatitis C virus NS5A protein interacts with 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase and inhibits antiviral activity of IFN in an IFN sensitivity-determining region-independent manner. J Gen Virol 2004; 85: 959969.
  • 107
    Porter CJH, Charman SA. Lymphatic transport of proteins after subcutaneous administration. J Pharm Sci 2000; 89: 297310.
  • 108
    Bochner BS. Road signs guiding leukocytes along the inflammation superhighway. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000; 106: 817828.
  • 109
    Banerjee D, Williams EV, Ilott J, Monypenny IJ, Webster DJT. Obesity predisposes to increased drainage following axillary node clearance: a prospective audit. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2001; 83: 268271.
  • 110
    Leppänen E, Leidenius M, Krogerus L, von Smitten K. The effect of patient and tumour characteristics on visualization of sentinel nodes after a single intratumoural injection of Tc 99m labelled human albumin colloid in breast cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol 2002; 28: 821826.
  • 111
    Holford NHG, Benet LZ. Pharmacokinetics & pharmacodynamics: dose selection & the time course of drug action. In: KatzungB, ed. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1998: 34-35.
  • 112
    Lamb MW, Martin NE. Weight-based versus fixed dosing of peginterferon (40kDa) alfa-2a. Ann Pharmacother 2002; 36: 933935.
  • 113
    Bruno R, Sacchi P, Maiocchi L, Zocchetti C, Ciappina V, Patruno S, et al. Area-under-the-curve for peginterferon alpha-2a and peginterferon alpha-2b is not related to body weight in treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis C. Antivir Ther 2005; 10: 201205.
  • 114
    Hickman IJ, Powell EE, Prins JB, Clouston AD, Ash S, Purdie DM, et al. In overweight patients with chronic hepatitis C, circulating insulin is associated with hepatic fibrosis: implications for therapy. J Hepatol 2003; 39: 10421048.
  • 115
    Hickman IJ, Clouston AD, Macdonald GA, Purdie DM, Prins JB, Ash S, et al. Effect of weight reduction on liver histology and biochemistry in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gut 2002; 51: 8994.
  • 116
    Hickman IJ, Jonsson JR, Prins JB, Ash S, Purdie DM, Clouston AD, et al. Modest weight loss and physical activity in overweight patients with chronic liver disease results in sustained improvements in alanine aminotransferase, fasting insulin, and quality of life. Gut 2004; 53: 413419.
  • 117
    Nair S, Diehl AM, Wiseman M, Farr GH Jr, Perrillo RP. Metformin in the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a pilot open label trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 20: 2328.
  • 118
    Duseja A, Murlidharan R, Bhansali A, Sharma S, Das A, Das R, et al. Assessment of insulin resistance and effect of metformin in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis—a preliminary report. Indian J Gastroenterol 2004; 23: 1215.
  • 119
    Uygun A, Kadayifci A, Isik AT, Ozgurtas T, Deveci S, Tuzun A, et al. Metformin in the treatment of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 19: 537544.
  • 120
    Promrat K, Lutchman G, Uwaifo GI, Freedman RJ, Soza A, Heller T, et al. A pilot study of pioglitazone treatment for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. HEPATOLOGY 2004; 39: 188196.
  • 121
    Drusano GL, Preston SL. A 48-week duration of therapy with pegylated interferon alpha 2b plus ribavirin may be too short to maximize long-term response among patients infected with genotype-1 hepatitis C virus. J Infect Dis 2004; 189: 964970.
  • 122
    Jian Wu Y, Shu Chen L, Gui Qiang W. Effects of fatty liver and related factors on the efficacy of combination antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Liver Int 2006; 26: 166172.
  • 123
    Camma C, Bruno S, Di Marco V, Di Bona D, Rumi M, Vinci M, et al. Insulin resistance is associated with steatosis in nondiabetic patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C. HEPATOLOGY 2006; 43: 6471.
  • 124
    D'Souza R, Sabin CA, Foster GR. Insulin resistance plays a significant role in liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C and in the response to antiviral therapy. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100: 15091515.
    Direct Link:
  • 125
    Sanyal AJ, Contos MJ, Sterling RK, Luketic VA, Shiffman ML, Stravitz RT, et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with hepatitis C is associated with features of the metabolic syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98: 20642071.
    Direct Link:
  • 126
    Thomopoulos KC, Theocharis GJ, Tsamantas AC, Siagris D, Dimitropoulou D, Gogos CA, et al. Liver steatosis is an independent risk factor for treatment failure in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005; 17: 149153.