• 1
    Liaw YF, Sung JJ, Chow WC, Farrell G, Lee CZ, Yuen H, et al. Lamivudine for patients with chronic hepatitis B and advanced liver disease. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 15211531.
  • 2
    Lai CL, Rosmawati M, Lao J, Van Vlierberghe H, Anderson FH, Thomas N, et al. Entecavir is superior to lamivudine in reducing hepatitis B virus DNA in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. Gastroenterology 2002; 123: 18311838.
  • 3
    Marcellin P, Chang TT, Lim SG, Tong MJ, Sievert W, Shiffman ML, et al. Adefovir dipivoxil for the treatment of hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 808816.
  • 4
    Fung SK, Lok AS. Management of hepatitis B patients with antiviral resistance. Antivir Ther 2004; 9: 10131026.
  • 5
    Locarnini S, Hatzakis A, Heathcote J, Keeffe EB, Liang TJ, Mutimer D, et al. Management of antiviral resistance in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Antivir Ther 2004; 9: 679693.
  • 6
    Liu CJ, Chen PJ, Lai MY, Kao JH, Chen DS. Hepatitis B virus variants in patients receiving lamivudine treatment with breakthrough hepatitis evaluated by serial viral loads and full-length viral sequences. HEPATOLOGY 2001; 34: 583589.
  • 7
    Fung SK, Andreone P, Han SH, Rajender Reddy K, Regev A, et al. Adefovir-resistant hepatitis B can be associated with viral rebound and hepatic decompensation. J Hepatol 2005; 43: 937943.
  • 8
    Lok AS, Lai CL, Leung N, Yao GB, Cui ZY, Schiff ER, et al. Long-term safety of lamivudine treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology 2003; 125: 17141722.
  • 9
    Wang JH, Lu SN, Lee CM, Lee JF, Chou YP. Fatal hepatic failure after emergence of the hepatitis B virus mutant during lamivudine therapy in a patient with liver cirrhosis. Scand J Gastroenterol 2002; 37: 366369.
  • 10
    Chen CH, Lee CM, Lu SN, Wang JH, Tung HD, Hung CH, et al. Comparison of clinical outcome between patients continuing and discontinuing lamivudine therapy after biochemical breakthrough of YMDD mutants. J Hepatol 2004; 41: 454461.
  • 11
    Mutimer D, Pillay D, Cook P, Ratcliffe D, O'Donnell K, Dowling D, et al. Selection of multiresistant hepatitis B virus during sequential nucleoside-analogue therapy. J Infect Dis 2000; 181: 713716.
  • 12
    Brunelle MN, Jacquard AC, Pichoud C, Durantel D, Carrouee-Durantel S, Villeneuve JP, et al. Susceptibility to antivirals of a human HBV strain with mutations conferring resistance to both lamivudine and adefovir. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 41: 13911398.
  • 13
    Tenney DJ, Levine SM, Rose RE, Walsh AW, Weinheimer SP, Discotto L, et al. Clinical emergence of entecavir-resistant hepatitis B virus requires additional substitutions in virus already resistant to Lamivudine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004; 48: 34983507.
  • 14
    Villet S, Pichoud C, Ollivet A, Villeneuve J, Trepo C, Zolium F. Sequential antiviral therapy leads to the emergence of multiple drug resistan thepatitis B virus [Abstract]. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42(Suppl): 581A.
  • 15
    Ghany MG, Ayola B, Villamil FG, Gish RG, Rojter S, Vierling JM, et al. Hepatitis B virus S mutants in liver transplant recipients who were reinfected despite hepatitis B immune globulin prophylaxis. HEPATOLOGY 1998; 27: 213222.
  • 16
    Carman WF, Trautwein C, van Deursen FJ, Colman K, Dornan E, McIntyre G, et al. Hepatitis B virus envelope variation after transplantation with and without hepatitis B immune globulin prophylaxis. HEPATOLOGY 1996; 24: 489493.
  • 17
    Hawkins AE, Gilson RJ, Gilbert N, Wreghitt TG, Gray JJ, Ahlers-de Boer I, et al. Hepatitis B virus surface mutations associated with infection after liver transplantation. J Hepatol 1996; 24: 814.
  • 18
    Carman WF, Zanetti AR, Karayiannis P, Waters J, Manzillo G, Tanzi E, et al. Vaccine-induced escape mutant of hepatitis B virus. Lancet 1990; 336: 325329.
  • 19
    Waters JA, Kennedy M, Voet P, Hauser P, Petre J, Carman W, et al. Loss of the common “A” determinant of hepatitis B surface antigen by a vaccine-induced escape mutant. J Clin Invest 1992; 90: 25432547.
  • 20
    Torresi J, Earnest-Silveira L, Deliyannis G, Edgtton K, Zhuang H, Locarnini SA, et al. Reduced antigenicity of the hepatitis B virus HBsAg protein arising as a consequence of sequence changes in the overlapping polymerase gene that are selected by lamivudine therapy. Virology 2002; 293: 305313.
  • 21
    Tillmann HL, Trautwein C, Bock T, Boker KH, Jackel E, Glowienka M, et al. Mutational pattern of hepatitis B virus on sequential therapy with famciclovir and lamivudine in patients with hepatitis B virus reinfection occurring under HBIg immunoglobulin after liver transplantation. HEPATOLOGY 1999; 30: 244256.
  • 22
    de Man RA, Bartholomeusz AI, Niesters HG, Zondervan PE, Locarnini SA. The sequential occurrence of viral mutations in a liver transplant recipient re-infected with hepatitis B: hepatitis B immune globulin escape, famciclovir non-response, followed by lamivudine resistance resulting in graft loss. J Hepatol 1998; 29: 669675.
  • 23
    Bock CT, Tillmann HL, Torresi J, Klempnauer J, Locarnini S, Manns MP, et al. Selection of hepatitis B virus polymerase mutants with enhanced replication by lamivudine treatment after liver transplantation. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 264273.
  • 24
    Kim KH, Lee KH, Chang HY, Ahn SH, Tong S, Yoon YJ, et al. Evolution of hepatitis B virus sequence from a liver transplant recipient with rapid breakthrough despite hepatitis B immune globulin prophylaxis and lamivudine therapy. J Med Virol 2003; 71: 367375.
  • 25
    Shafer RW, Winters MA, Palmer S, Merigan TC. Multiple concurrent reverse transcriptase and protease mutations and multidrug resistance of HIV-1 isolates from heavily treated patients. Ann Intern Med 1998; 128: 906911.
  • 26
    Gonzales MJ, Johnson E, Dupnik KM, Imamichi T, Shafer RW. Colinearity of reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations detected by population-based sequencing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2003; 34: 398402.
  • 27
    Yeh CT, Chien RN, Chu CM, Liaw YF. Clearance of the original hepatitis B virus YMDD-motif mutants with emergence of distinct lamivudine-resistant mutants during prolonged lamivudine therapy. HEPATOLOGY 2000; 31: 13181326.
  • 28
    Natsuizaka M, Hige S, Ono Y, Ogawa K, Nakanishi M, Chuma M, et al. Long-term follow-up of chronic hepatitis B after the emergence of mutations in the hepatitis B virus polymerase region. J Viral Hepatol 2005; 12: 154159.
  • 29
    Melegari M, Scaglioni PP, Wands JR. Hepatitis B virus mutants associated with 3TC and famciclovir administration are replication defective. HEPATOLOGY 1998; 27: 628633.
  • 30
    Delaney WE 4th, Yang H, Westland CE, Das K, Arnold E, Gibbs CS, et al. The hepatitis B virus polymerase mutation rtV173L is selected during lamivudine therapy and enhances viral replication in vitro. J Virol 2003; 77: 1183311841.
  • 31
    Ono SK, Kato N, Shiratori Y, Kato J, Goto T, Schinazi RF, et al. The polymerase L528M mutation cooperates with nucleotide binding-site mutations, increasing hepatitis B virus replication and drug resistance. J Clin Invest 2001; 107: 449455.
  • 32
    Bartholomeusz A, Locarnini S, Ayres A, Thompson G, Sozzi V, Angus P, et al. Molecular modeling of hepatitis B virus polymerase and adefovir resistance identifies three cluster of mutations [Abstract]. HEPATOLOGY 2004; 40(Suppl): 246A.
  • 33
    Torresi J. The virological and clinical significance of mutations in the overlapping envelope and polymerase genes of hepatitis B virus. J Clin Virol 2002; 25: 97106.
  • 34
    Lok AS, Hussain M, Cursano C, Margotti M, Gramenzi A, Grazi GL, et al. Evolution of hepatitis B virus polymerase gene mutations in hepatitis B e antigen-negative patients receiving lamivudine therapy. HEPATOLOGY 2000; 32: 11451153.
  • 35
    Stuyver LJ, Locarnini SA, Lok A, Richman DD, Carman WF, Dienstag JL, et al. Nomenclature for antiviral-resistant human hepatitis B virus mutations in the polymerase region. HEPATOLOGY 2001; 33: 751757.
  • 36
    Villeneuve JP, Durantel D, Durantel S, Westland C, Xiong S, Brosgart CL, et al. Selection of a hepatitis B virus strain resistant to adefovir in a liver transplantation patient. J Hepatol 2003; 39: 10851089.
  • 37
    Zhang YY, Summers J. Low dynamic state of viral competition in a chronic avian hepadnavirus infection. J Virol 2000; 74: 52575265.
  • 38
    Chayama K, Suzuki Y, Kobayashi M, Kobayashi M, Tsubota A, Hashimoto M, et al. Emergence and takeover of YMDD motif mutant hepatitis B virus during long-term lamivudine therapy and re-takeover by wild type after cessation of therapy. HEPATOLOGY 1998; 27: 17111716.
  • 39
    Richman DD. The impact of drug resistance on the effectiveness of chemotherapy for chronic hepatitis B. HEPATOLOGY 2000; 32: 866867.
  • 40
    Coleman P, Park A, Thompson G, Warner N, Locarnini S. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) mutants selected during antiviral therapy: impact on epitope presentation [Abstract]. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42(Suppl): 585A.