SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Kawai T, Akira S. Innate immune recognition of viral infection. Nat Immunol 2006; 7: 131137.
  • 2
    Wagner H, Bauer S. All is not Toll: new pathways in DNA recognition. J Exp Med 2006; 20; 203: 265268.
  • 3
    Akira S, Uematsu S, Takeuchi O. Pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Cell 2006; 24; 124: 783801.
  • 4
    Liu C, Xu Z, Gupta D, Dziarski R. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins: a novel family of four human innate immunity pattern recognition molecules. J Biol Chem 2001; 14; 276: 3468634694.
  • 5
    Werts C, Girardin SE, Philpott DJ. TIR, CARD and PYRIN: three domains for an antimicrobial triad. Cell Death Differ 2006; 13: 798815.
  • 6
    Johnson CL, Gale M Jr. CARD games between virus and host get a new player. Trends Immunol 2006; 27: 14.
  • 7
    Bell JK, Mullen GE, Leifer CA, Mazzoni A, Davies DR, Segal DM. Leucine-rich repeats and pathogen recognition in Toll-like receptors. Trends Immunol 2003; 24: 528533.
  • 8
    Matsumoto M, Funami K, Tanabe M, Oshiumi H, Shingai M, Seto Y, et al. Subcellular localization of Toll-like receptor 3 in human dendritic cells. J Immunol 2003; 171: 31543162.
  • 9
    Visintin A, Mazzoni A, Spitzer JA, Segal DM. Secreted MD-2 is a large polymeric protein that efficiently confers lipopolysaccharide sensitivity to Toll-like receptor 4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001; 98: 1215612161.
  • 10
    Chow JC, Young DW, Golenbock DT, Christ WJ, Gusovsky F. Toll-like receptor-4 mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced signal transduction. J Biol Chem 274: 1068910692.
  • 11
    Takeda K, Akira S. Toll-like receptors in innate immunity. Int Immunol 2005; 17: 114.
  • 12
    Dunne A, O'Neill LA. Adaptor usage and Toll-like receptor signaling specificity. FEBS Lett 2005; 579: 33303335.
  • 13
    Jang Z, Georgel P, Du X, Shamel L, Sovath S, Mudd S, et al. CD14 is required for MyD88-independent LPS signaling. Nat Immunol 2005; 6: 565570.
  • 14
    Sandor F, Latz E, Re F, Mandell L, Repik G, Golenbock DT, et al. Importance of extra- and intracellular domains of TLR1 and TLR2 in NFkappa B signaling. J Cell Biol 2003; 162: 10991110.
  • 15
    Nakao Y, Funami K, Kikkawa S, Taniguchi M, Nishiguchi M, Fukumori Y, et al. Surface-expressed TLR6 participates in the recognition of diacylated lipopeptide and peptidoglycan in human cells. J Immunol 2005; 174: 15661573.
  • 16
    Hasan U, Chaffois C, Gaillard C, Saulnier V, Merck E, Tancredi S, et al. Human TLR10 is a functional receptor, expressed by B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, which activates gene transcription through MyD88. J Immunol 2005; 174: 29422950.
  • 17
    Kawai T, Akira S. TLR signaling. Cell Death Differ 2006; 13: 816825.
  • 18
    Arbibe L, Mira JP, Teusch N, Kline L, Guha M, Mackman N, et al. Toll-like receptor 2-mediated NF-kappa B activation requires a Rac1-dependent pathway. Nat Immunol 2000; 1: 533540.
  • 19
    Hayashi F, Smith KD, Ozinsky A, Hawn TR, Yi EC, Goodlett DR, et al. The innate immune response to bacterial flagellin is mediated by Toll-like receptor 5. Nature 2001; 410: 10991103.
  • 20
    Bowie AG, Haga IR. The role of Toll-like receptors in the host response to viruses. Mol Immunol 2005; 42: 859867.
  • 21
    Alexopoulou L, Holt AC, Medzhitov R, Flavell RA. Recognition of double-stranded RNA and activation of NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptor 3. Nature 2001; 413: 732738.
  • 22
    Yamamoto M, Sato S, Mori K, Hoshino K, Takeuchi O, Takeda K, Akira S. Cutting edge: a novel Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter that preferentially activates the IFN-beta promoter in the Toll-like receptor signaling. J Immunol 2002; 169: 66686672.
  • 23
    Sarkar SN, Peters KL, Elco CP, Sakamoto S, Pal S, Sen GC. Novel roles of TLR3 tyrosine phosphorylation and PI3 kinase in double-stranded RNA signaling. Nat Struct Mol Biol 2004; 11: 10601067.
  • 24
    Sato S, Sugiyama M, Yamamoto M, Watanabe Y, Kawai T, Takeda K, Akira S. Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF) associates with TNF receptor-associated factor 6 and TANK-binding kinase 1, and activates two distinct transcription factors, NF-kappa B and IFN-regulatory factor-3, in the Toll-like receptor signaling. J Immunol 2003; 171: 43044310.
  • 25
    Meylan E, Burns K, Hofmann K, Blancheteau V, Martinon F, Kelliher M, Tschopp J. RIP1 is an essential mediator of Toll-like receptor 3-induced NF-kappa B activation. Nat Immunol 2004; 5: 503507.
  • 26
    Diebold SS, Kaisho T, Hemmi H, Akira S, Reis e Sousa C. Innate antiviral responses by means of TLR7-mediated recognition of single-stranded RNA. Science 2004; 303: 15291531.
  • 27
    Hornung V, Guenthner-Biller M, Bourquin C, Ablasser A, Schlee M, Uematsu S, et al. Sequence-specific potent induction of IFN-alpha by short interfering RNA in plasmacytoid dendritic cells through TLR7. Nat Med 2005; 11: 263270.
  • 28
    Hemmi H, Takeuchi O, Kawai T, Kaisho T, Sato S, Sanjo H, Matsumoto M, et al. A Toll-like receptor recognizes bacterial DNA. Nature 2000; 408: 740745.
  • 29
    Heil F, Hemmi H, Hochrein H, Ampenberger F, Kirschning C, Akira S, et al. Species-specific recognition of single-stranded RNA via toll-like receptor 7 and 8. Science 2004; 303: 15261529.
  • 30
    Ahmad-Nejad P, Hacker H, Rutz M, Bauer S, Vabulas RM, Wagner H. Bacterial CpG-DNA and lipopolysaccharides activate Toll-like receptors at distinct cellular compartments. Eur J Immunol 2002; 32: 19581968.
  • 31
    Rutz M, Metzger J, Gellert T, Luppa P, Lipford GB, Wagner H, Bauer S. Toll-like receptor 9 binds single-stranded CpG-DNA in a sequence- and pH-dependent manner. Eur J Immunol 2004; 34: 25412550.
  • 32
    Honda K, Yanai H, Mizutani T, Negishi H, Shimada N, Suzuki N, et al. Role of a transductional-transcriptional processor complex involving MyD88 and IRF-7 in Toll-like receptor signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004; 101: 1541615421.
  • 33
    Kawai T, Sato S, Ishii KJ, Coban C, Hemmi H, Yamamoto M, et al. Interferon-alpha induction through Toll-like receptors involves a direct interaction of IRF7 with MyD88 and TRAF6. Nat Immunol 2004; 5: 10611068.
  • 34
    Seya T, Funami K, Taniguchi M, Matsumoto M. Antibodies against human Toll-like receptors (TLRs): TLR distribution and localization in human dendritic cells. J Endotoxin Res 2005; 11: 369374.
  • 35
    Krug A, Towarowski A, Britsch S, Rothenfusser S, Hornung V, Bals R, et al. Toll-like receptor expression reveals CpG DNA as a unique microbial stimulus for plasmacytoid dendritic cells which synergizes with CD40 ligand to induce high amounts of IL-12. Eur J Immunol 2001; 31: 30263037.
  • 36
    Visintin A, Mazzoni A, Spitzer JH, Wyllie DH, Dower SK, Segal DM. Regulation of Toll-like receptors in human monocytes and dendritic cells. J Immunol 2001; 166: 249255.
  • 37
    Takeuchi O, Akira S. MyD88 as a bottle neck in Toll/IL-1 signaling. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2002; 270: 155167.
  • 38
    Yamamoto M, Sato S, Hemmi H, Hoshino K, Kaisho T, Sanjo H, et al. Role of adaptor TRIF in the MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway. Science 2003; 301: 640643.
  • 39
    Takeuchi O, Takeda K, Hoshino K, Adachi O, Ogawa T, Akira S. Cellular responses to bacterial cell wall components are mediated through MyD88-dependent signaling cascades. Int Immunol 2000; 12: 113117.
  • 40
    Fitzgerald KA, Rowe DC, Barnes BJ, Caffrey DR, Visintin A, Latz E, et al. LPS-TLR4 signaling to IRF-3/7 and NF-kappaB involves the toll adapters TRAM and TRIF. J Exp Med 2003; 198: 10431055.
  • 41
    Yamamoto M, Sato S, Hemmi H, Uematsu S, Hoshino K, Kaisho T, Takeuchi O, et al. TRAM is specifically involved in the Toll-like receptor 4-mediated MyD88-independent signaling pathway. Nat Immunol 2003; 4: 11441150.
  • 42
    Yamamoto M, Akira S. TIR domain-containing adaptors regulate TLR signaling pathways. Adv Exp Med Biol 2005; 560: 19.
  • 43
    Vogel SN, Fitzgerald KA, Fenton MJ. TLRs: differential adapter utilization by Toll-like receptors mediates TLR-specific patterns of gene expression. Mol Interv 2003; 3: 466477.
  • 44
    Kawai T, Takeuchi O, Fujita T, Inoue JI, Mühlradt PF, Sato S, et al. Lipopolysaccharide stimulates the MyD88-independent pathway and results in activation of IFN-regulatory factor 3 and the expression of a subset of lipopolysaccharide-inducible genes. J Immunol 2001; 167: 58875894.
  • 45
    Inohara, Chamaillard, McDonald C, Nunez G. NOD-LRR proteins: role in host-microbial interactions and inflammatory disease. Annu Rev Biochem 2005; 74: 355383.
  • 46
    Chamaillard M, Hashimoto M, Horie Y, Masumoto J, Qiu S, Saab L, et al. An essential role for NOD1 in host recognition of bacterial peptidoglycan containing diaminopimelic acid. Nat Immunol 2003; 4: 702707.
  • 47
    Seth RB, Sun L, Ea CK, Chen ZJ. Identification and characterization of MAVS, a mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein that activates NF-kappaB and IRF 3. Cell 2005; 122: 669682.
  • 48
    Kawai T, Takahashi K, Sato S, Coban C, Kumar H, Kato H, et al. IPS-1, an adaptor triggering RIG-I- and Mda5-mediated type I interferon induction. Nat Immunol 2005; 6: 981988.
  • 49
    Meylan E, Curran J, Hofmann K, Moradpour D, Binder M, Bartenschlager R, Tschopp J. Cardif is an adaptor protein in the RIG-I antiviral pathway and is targeted by hepatitis C virus. Nature 2005; 437: 11671172.
  • 50
    Xu LG, Wang YY, Han KJ, Li LY, Zhai Z, Shu HB. VISA is an adapter protein required for virus-triggered IFN-beta signaling. Mol Cell 2005; 19: 727740.
  • 51
    Okabe Y, Kawane K, Akira S, Taniguchi T, Nagata S. Toll-like receptor-independent gene induction program activated by mammalian DNA escaped from apoptotic DNA degradation. J Exp Med 2005; 202: 13331339.
  • 52
    Ishii KJ, Coban C, Kato H, Takahashi K, Torii Y, Takeshita F, et al. A Toll-like receptor-independent antiviral response induced by double-stranded B-form DNA. Nat Immunol 2006; 7: 4048.
  • 53
    Zarember KA, Godowski PJ. Tissue expression of human Toll-like receptors and differential regulation of Toll-like receptor mRNAs in leukocytes in response to microbes, their products, and cytokines. J Immunol 2002; 168: 554561.
  • 54
    Liu S, Gallo DJ, Green AM, Williams DL, Gong X, Shapiro RA, et al. Role of toll-like receptors in changes in gene expression and NF-kappa B activation in mouse hepatocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Infect Immun 2002; 70: 34333442.
  • 55
    Nishimura M, Naito S. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiles of human toll-like receptors and related genes. Biol Pharm Bull 2005; 28: 886892.
  • 56
    Fukuda I, Tanamoto K, Kanegasaki S, Yajima Y, Goto Y. Deacylation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide in rat hepatocytes in vitro. Br J Exp Pathol 1989; 70: 267274.
  • 57
    Harris HW, Brady SE, Rapp JH. Hepatic endosomal trafficking of lipoprotein-bound endotoxin in rats. J Surg Res 2002; 106: 188195.
  • 58
    Matsumura T, Degawa T, Takii T, Hayashi H, Okamoto T, Inoue J, Onozaki K. TRAF6-NF-kappaB pathway is essential for interleukin-1-induced TLR2 expression and its functional response to TLR2 ligand in murine hepatocytes. Immunology 2003; 109: 127136.
  • 59
    Li K, Chen Z, Kato N, Gale M Jr, Lemon SM. Distinct poly(I-C) and virus-activated signaling pathways leading to interferon-beta production in hepatocytes. J Biol Chem 2005; 280: 1673916747.
  • 60
    Vodovotz Y, Liu S, McCloskey C, Shapiro R, Green A, Billiar TR. The hepatocyte as a microbial product-responsive cell. J Endotoxin Res 2001; 7: 365373.
  • 61
    Ojaniemi M, Liljeroos M, Harju K, Sormunen R, Vuolteenaho R, Hallman M. TLR-2 is upregulated and mobilized to the hepatocyte plasma membrane in the space of Disse and to the Kupffer cells TLR-4 dependently during acute endotoxemia in mice. Immunol Lett 2006; 102: 158168.
  • 62
    Spolarics Z. Endotoxin stimulates gene expression of ROS-eliminating pathways in rat hepatic endothelial and Kupffer cells. Am J Physiol 1996; 270: G660G666.
  • 63
    Uhrig A, Banafsche R, Kremer M, Hegenbarth S, Hamann A, Neurath M, et al. Development and functional consequences of LPS tolerance in sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver. J Leukoc Biol 2005; 77: 626633.
  • 64
    Takii Y, Nakamura M, Ito M, Yokoyama T, Komori A, Shimizu-Yoshida Y, et al. Enhanced expression of type I interferon and toll-like receptor-3 in primary biliary cirrhosis. Lab Invest 2005; 85: 908920.
  • 65
    Mueller T, Kobayashi N, Shibolet O, Rosenberg IM, Podolsky DK. Th1 cytokines promote Toll-like receptor signaling in human biliary epithelial cells [Abstract]. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42(Suppl): 202A203A.
  • 66
    Harada K, Isse K, Nakanuma Y. Interferonγ accelerates NF-κB activation of biliary epithelial cells induced by Toll-like receptor and ligand interaction. J Clin Pathol 2006; 59: 184190.
  • 67
    Harada K, Ohira S, Isse K, Ozaki S, Zen Y, Sato Y, Nakanuma Y. Lipopolysaccharide activates nuclear factor-kappaB through toll-like receptors and related molecules in cultured biliary epithelial cells. Lab Invest 2003; 83: 16571667.
  • 68
    Medvedev AE, Kopydlowski KM, Vogel SN. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced signal transduction in endotoxin-tolerized mouse macrophages: dysregulation of cytokine, chemokine, and toll-like receptor 2 and 4 gene expression. J Immunol 2000; 164: 55645574.
  • 69
    Enomoto N, Ikejima K, Bradford B, Rivera C, Kono H, Brenner DA, Thurman RG. Alcohol causes both tolerance and sensitization of rat Kupffer cells via mechanisms dependent on endotoxin. Gastroenterology 1998; 115: 443451.
  • 70
    Harada K, Isse K, Nakanuma Y. Endotoxin tolerance and its molecular mechanisms in human intrahepatic billiary epithelial cells [Abstract]. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42(Suppl): 374A.
  • 71
    Kobayashi K, Hernandez LD, Galan JE, Janeway CA Jr, Medzhitov R, Flavell RA. IRAK-M is a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor signaling. Cell 2002; 110: 191202.
  • 72
    Chen XM, O'Hara SP, Nelson JB, Splinter PL, Small AJ, Tietz PS, Limper AH, et al. Multiple TLRs are expressed in human cholangiocytes and mediate host epithelial defense responses to Cryptosporidium parvum via activation of NF-kappaB. J Immunol 2005; 175: 74477456.
  • 73
    D'Souza NB, Bautista AP, Lang CH, Spitzer JJ. Acute ethanol intoxication prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced down regulation of protein kinase C in rat Kupffer cells. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1992; 16: 6467.
  • 74
    Adachi Y, Bradford BU, Gao W, Bojes HK, Thurman RG. Inactivation of Kupffer cells prevents early alcohol-induced liver injury. HEPATOLOGY 1994; 20: 453460.
  • 75
    Uchikura K, Wada T, Hoshino S, Nagakawa Y, Aiko T, Bulkley GB, Klein AS, et al. Lipopolysaccharides induced increases in Fas ligand expression by Kupffer cells via mechanisms dependent on reactive oxygen species. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2004; 287: G620G626.
  • 76
    Knolle P, Schlaak J, Uhrig A, Kempf P, Meyer zum Buschenfelde KH, Gerken G. Human Kupffer cells secrete IL-10 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. J Hepatol 1995; 22: 226229.
  • 77
    Mulder J, Kamps JA, Karpen SJ, Kuipers F, Sturm E. Liver X receptor agonist T0901317 supresses endotoxin-induced expression of inflammatory genes in Kupffer cells in vitro. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42(Suppl): 413A.
  • 78
    Paik YH, Schwabe RF, Bataller R, Russo MP, Jobin C, Brenner DA. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates inflammatory signaling by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in human hepatic stellate cells. HEPATOLOGY 2003; 37: 10431055.
  • 79
    Brun P, Castagliuolo I, Pinzani M, Palu G, Martines D. Exposure to bacterial cell wall products triggers an inflammatory phenotype in hepatic stellate cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2005; 289: G571G578.
  • 80
    Thirunavukkarasu C, Uemura T, Wang LF, Watkins SC, Gandhi CR. Normal rat hepatic stellate cells respond to endotoxin in LBP-independent manner to produce inhibitor(s) of DNA synthesis in hepatocytes. J Cell Physiol 2005; 204: 654665.
  • 81
    Zhang X, Yu WP, Gao L, Wei KB, Ju JL, Xu JZ. Effects of lipopolysaccharides stimulated Kupffer cells on activation of rat hepatic stellate cells. World J Gastroenterol 2004; 10: 610613.
  • 82
    Hornung V, Rothenfusser S, Britsch S, Krug A, Jahrsdorfer B, Giese T, et al. Quantitative expression of toll-like receptor 1-10 mRNA in cellular subsets of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and sensitivity to CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. J Immunol 2002; 168: 45314537.
  • 83
    Jarrossay D, Napolitani G, Colonna M, Sallusto F, Lanzavecchia A. Specialization and complementarity in microbial molecule recognition by human myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol 2001; 31: 33883393.
  • 84
    Uematsu S, Sato S, Yamamoto M, Hirotani T, Kato H, Takeshita F, et al. Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 plays an essential role for Toll-like receptor (TLR)7- and TLR9-mediated interferon-α induction. J Exp Med 2005; 201: 915923.
  • 85
    Beutler B, Poltorak A. Sepsis and evolution of the innate immune response. Crit Care Med 2001; 29: S27
  • 86
    Wong PM, Chugn SW, Sultzer BM. Genes, receptors, signals and responses to lipopolysaccharide endotoxin. Scand J Immunol 2000; 51: 123127.
  • 87
    Nagy LE. Recent insights into the role of the innate immune system in the development of alcoholic liver disease. Exp Biol Med 2003; 228: 882890.
  • 88
    Mizoguchi Y, Kuboi H, Tsutsui H, Seki S, Kobayashi K, Yamamoto S, et al. An experimentally-induced acute hepatic failure model in various strains of mice. Gastroenterol Jpn 1989; 24: 519522.
  • 89
    Romics L Jr, Dolganiuc A, Velayudham A, Kodys K, Mandrekar P, Golenbock D, et al. Toll-like receptor 2 mediates inflammatory cytokine induction but not sensitization for liver injury by Propioni-bacterium acnes. J Leukoc Biol 2005; 78: 12551264.
  • 90
    Velayudham A, Hritz I, Dolganiuc A, Mandrekar P, Kurt-Jones E, Szabo G. Critical role of Toll-like receptors and the common TLR adaptor, MyD88, in induction of granulomas and liver injury. J Hepatol 2006 (in press).
  • 91
    Romics L Jr, Dolganiuc A, Kodys K, Drechsler Y, Oak S, Velayudham A, et al. Selective priming to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), not TLR2, ligands by P. acnes involves up-regulation of MD-2 in mice. HEPATOLOGY 2004; 40: 555564.
  • 92
    Kim J, Ochoa MT, Krutzik SR, Takeuchi O, Uematsu S, Legaspi AJ, et al. Activation of toll-like receptor 2 in acne triggers inflammatory cytokine responses. J Immunol 2002; 169: 15351541.
  • 93
    Kalis C, Gumenscheimer M, Freudenberg N, Tchaptchet S, Fejer G, Heit A, et al. Requirement for TLR9 in the immunomodulatory activity of Propionibacterium acnes. J Immunol 2005; A174: 42954300.
  • 94
    Schuchman M, Hermann F, herkel J, van der Zee R, Galle PR, Lohse AW. HSP60 and CpG-DNA-oligonucleotides differentially regulate LPS-tolerance of hepatic Kupffer cells. Immunol Letters 2004; 93: 199204.
  • 95
    Jiang W, Sun R, Wei H, Tian Z. Toll-like receptor 3 ligand attenuates LPS-induced liver injury by down-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 expression on macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005; 102: 1707717082.
  • 96
    Liu J, Sendelbach LE, Parkinson A, Klaassen CD. Endotoxin pretreatment protects against the hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride: role of cytochrome P450 suppression. Toxicology 2000; 147: 167176.
  • 97
    Su GL, Wang SC, Aminlari A, Tipoe GL, Steinstraesser L, Nanji A. Impaired hepatocyte regeneration in toll-like receptor 4 mutant mice. Dig Dis Sci 2004; 49: 843849.
  • 98
    Tsoulfas G, Takahashi Y, Ganster RW, Yagnik G, Guo Z, Fung JJ, et al. Activation of the lipopolysaccharide signaling pathway in hepatic transplantation preservation injury. Transplantation 2002; 74: 713.
  • 99
    Campbell JS, Riehle KJ, Brooling JT, Bauer RL, Mitchell C, Fausto N. Proinflammatory cytokine production in liver regeneration is MyD88-dependent, but independent of CD14, TLR2, and TLR4. J Immunol 2006; 176: 25222528.
  • 100
    Zhai Y, Shen XD, O'Connell R, Gao F, Lassman C, Busuttil RW, et al. Cutting edge: TLR4 activation mediates liver ischemia/reperfusion inflammatory response via IFN regulatory factor 3-dependent MyD88-independent pathway. J Immunol 2004; 173: 71157119.
  • 101
    Shen XD, Ke B, Zhai Y, Gao F, Busuttil RW, Cheng G, Kupiec-Weglinski JW. Toll-like receptor and heme oxygenase-1 signaling in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. Am J Transplant 2005; 5: 17931800.
  • 102
    Tsung A, Hoffman RA, Izuishi K, Critchlow ND, Nakao A, Chan MH, et al. Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury involves functional TLR4 signaling in nonparenchymal cells. J Immunol 2005; 175: 76617668.
  • 103
    Tsung A, Sahai R, Tanaka H, Nakao A, Fink MP, Lotze MT, et al. The nuclear factor HMGB1 mediates hepatic injury after murine liver ischemia-referfusion. J Exper Med 2005; 11351143.
  • 104
    Halangk J, von Hank T, Witt H, Puhl G, Muller T, Weidenmann B, et al. Endotoxin receptor CD14 and TLR4 polymorphism in chronic liver disease [Abstract]. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42(Suppl): 344A345A.
  • 105
    Isogawa M, Robek MD, Furuichi Y, Chisari FV. Toll-like receptor signaling inhibits hepatitis B virus replication in vivo. J Virol 2005; 79: 72697722.
  • 106
    McClary H, Koch R, Chisari FV, Guidotti LG. Relative sensitivity of hepatitis B virus and other hepatotropic viruses to the antiviral effects of cytokines. J Virol 2000; 74: 22552264.
  • 107
    Ito T, Amakawa R, Fukuhara S. Roles of toll-like receptors in natural interferon-producing cells as sensors in immune surveillance. Hum Immunol 2002; 63: 11201125.
  • 108
    Schiff ER, Tagle FM. Treatment of HCV: approach to difficult cases. Clin Liver Dis 1997; 1: 647662.
  • 109
    Craxi A, Licata A. Clinical trial results of peginterferons in combination with ribavirin. Semin Liver Dis 2003; 23: 3546.
  • 110
    He Y, Katze MG. To interfere and to anti-interfere: the interplay between hepatitis C virus and interferon. Viral Immunol 2002; 15: 95119.
  • 111
    Verthelyi D, Wang VW, Lifson JD, Klinman DM. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides improve the response to hepatitis B immunization in healthy and SIV-infected rhesus macaques. AIDS. 2004; 18: 10031008.
  • 112
    Siegrist CA, Pihlgren M, Tougne C, Efler SM, Morris ML, AlAdhami MJ, et al. Co-administration of CpG oligonucleotides enhances the late affinity maturation process of human anti-hepatitis B vaccine response. Vaccine 2004; 23: 615622.
  • 113
    Cheng J, Imanishi H, Morisaki H, Liu W, Nakamura H, Morisaki T, Hada T. Recombinant HBsAg inhibits LPS-induced COX-2 expression and IL-18 production by interfering with the NFkappaB pathway in a human monocytic cell line, THP-1. J Hepatol 2005; 43: 465471.
  • 114
    Thompson AJ, Locarnini S, Lau GK, Naoumov NV, Desmond P, Mommeja-Marin H, et al. Quantitative HBeAg levels and patterns of TLR2 and TLR4 expression on CD14+ monocytes during potent antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CH-B) [Abstract]. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42(Suppl): 579A.
  • 115
    Hui CK, Zhang HY, Lee NP, Yueng YH, Lu L, Leung N et al. Upregulation of Toll-like receptor 7 is essential for clearance of hepatitis B surface antigen in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection [Abstract]. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42(Suppl): 707A708A.
  • 116
    Thimme R, Bukh J, Spangenberg HC, Wieland S, Pemberton J, Steiger C, et al. Viral and immunological determinants of hepatitis C virus clearance, persistence, and disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002; 99: 1566115668.
  • 117
    Pawlotsky JM. Mechanisms of antiviral treatment efficacy and failure in chronic hepatitis C. Antiviral Res 2003; 59: 111.
  • 118
    Gao B, Hong F, Radaeva S. Host factors and failure of interferon-alpha treatment in hepatitis C virus. HEPATOLOGY 2004; 39: 880890.
  • 119
    Otsuka M, Kato N, Moriyama M, Taniguchi H, Wang Y, Dharel N, et al. Interaction between the HCV NS3 protein and the host TBK1 protein leads to inhibition of cellular antiviral responses. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 41: 10041012.
  • 120
    Li K, Foy E, Ferreon JC, Nakamura M, Ferreon AC, Ikeda M, et al. Immune evasion by hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease-mediated cleavage of the Toll-like receptor 3 adaptor protein TRIF. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005; 102: 29922997.
  • 121
    Wornle M, Schmid H, Banas B, Merkle M, Henger A, Roeder M, et al. Novel role of toll-like receptor 3 in hepatitis C-associated glomerulonephritis. Am J Pathol 2006; 168: 370385.
  • 122
    Oganesyan G, Saha SK, Guo B, He JQ, Shahangian A, Zarnegar B, et al. Critical role of TRAF3 in the Toll-like receptor-dependent and -independent antiviral response. Nature 2006; 439: 208211.
  • 123
    Loo YM, Owen DM, Li K, Erickson AK, Johnson CL, Fish PM, et al. Viral and therapeutic control of IFN-beta promoter stimulator 1 during hepatitis C virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006; 103: 60016006.
  • 124
    Foy E, Li K, Sumpter R Jr, Loo YM, Johnson CL, Wang C, et al. Control of antiviral defenses through hepatitis C virus disruption of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005; 102: 29862991.
  • 125
    Breiman A, Grandvaux N, Lin R, Ottone C, Akira S, Yoneyama M, et al. Inhibition of RIG-1-dependent signaling to the interferon pathway during hepatitis C virus expression and restoration of signaling by IKK epsilon. J Virol 2005; 79: 39693978.
  • 126
    Szabo G, Dolganiuc A. Subversion of plasmacytoid and myeloid dendritic cell functions in chronic HCV infection. Immunobiology 2005; 210: 237247.
  • 127
    Dolganiuc A, Oak S, Kodys K, Golenbock DT, Finberg RW, Kurt-Jones E, Szabo G. Hepatitis C core and nonstructural 3 proteins trigger toll-like receptor 2-mediated pathways and inflammatory activation. Gastroenterology 2004; 127: 15131524.
  • 128
    Visvanathan K, Skinner M, Chang J, Lewin S, Thompson A, Locarnini S, Riordan SM. Up-regulation of Toll-like receptors expression in chronic hepatitis C: correlation with circulating pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and hepatic necro-inflammatory activity [Abstract]. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42z(Suppl): 547A.
  • 129
    Manigold T, Bocker U, Hanck C, Gundt J, Traber P, Antoni C, Rossol S. Differential expression of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in patients with liver cirrhosis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2003; 15: 275282.
  • 130
    Neuman MG, Benhamou JP, Malkiewicz IM, Akremi R, Shear NH, Asselah T, et al. Cytokines as predictors for sustained response and as markers for immunomodulation in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Clin Biochem 2001; 34: 173182.
  • 131
    Frese M, Barth K, Kaul A, Lohmann V, Schwarzle V, Bartenschlager R. Hepatitis C virus RNA replication is resistant to tumor necrosis factor-alpha. J Gen Virol 2003; 84: 12531259.
  • 132
    Nelson DR. The immunopathogenesis of hepatitis C virus infection. Clin Liver Dis 2001; 5: 931953.
  • 133
    Morrison LA. The Toll of herpes simplex virus infection. Trends Microbiol 2004; 12: 353356.
  • 134
    Compton T, Kurt-Jones EA, Boehme KW, Belko J, Latz E, Golenbock DT, Finberg RW. Human cytomegalovirus activates inflammatory cytokine responses via CD14 and Toll- like receptor 2. J Virol 2003; 7: 45884596.
  • 135
    Lund J, Sato A, Akira S, Medzhitov R, Iwasaki A. Toll-like receptor 9-mediated recognition of Herpes simplex virus-2 by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. J Exp Med 2003; 198: 513520.
  • 136
    Uesugi T, Froh M, Arteel GE, Bradford BU, Thurman RG. Toll-like receptor 4 is involved in the mechanism of early alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. HEPATOLOGY 2001; 34: 101108.
  • 137
    Yin M, Bradford BU, Wheeler MD, Uesugi T, Froh M, Goyert SM, Thurman RG. Reduced early alcohol-induced liver injury in CD14-deficient mice. J Immunol 2001; 166: 47374742.
  • 138
    Deaciuc IV, Spitzer JJ. Hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cell in alcoholemia and endotoxemia. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1996; 20: 607614.
  • 139
    Romics L Jr, Mandrekar P, Kodys K, Velayudham A, Drechsler Y, Dolganiuc A, Szabo G. Increased lipopolysaccharide sensitivity in alcoholic fatty livers is independent of leptin deficiency and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) or TLR2 mRNA expression. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2005; 29: 10181026.
  • 140
    Mandrekar P, Dolganiuc A, Bellerose G, Kodys K, Romics L, Nizamani R, Szabo G. Acute alcohol inhibits the induction of nuclear regulatory factor kappa B activation through CD14/toll-like receptor 4, interleukin-1, and tumor necrosis factor receptors: a common mechanism independent of inhibitory kappa B alpha degradation? Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2002; 26: 16091614.
  • 141
    Romics L Jr, Kodys K, Dolganiuc A, Graham L, Velayudham A, Mandrekar P, Szabo G. Diverse regulation of NF-kappaB and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in murine nonalcoholic fatty liver. HEPATOLOGY 2004; 40: 376385.
  • 142
    Goral J, Kovacs EJ. In vivo ethanol exposure down-regulates TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR9- mediated macrophage inflammatory response by limiting p38 and ERK1/2 activation. J Immunol 2005; 174: 456463.
  • 143
    Pruett SB, Schwab C, Zheng Q, Fan R. Suppression of innate immunity by acute ethanol administration: a global perspective and a new mechanism beginning with inhibition of signaling through TLR3. J Immunol 2004; 173: 27152724.
  • 144
    Kono H, Rusyn I, Uesugi T, Yamashina S, Connor HD, Dikalova A, et al. Diphenyleneiodonium sulfate, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, prevents early alcohol-induced liver injury in the rat. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2001; 280: G1005G1012.
  • 145
    Thakur V, McMullen MR, Wang Q, Nagy LE. Enhanced LPS-stimulated ERK ½ activation and TNF alpha secretion by rat Kupffer cells after chnic ethanol feeding is mediated via increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase [Abstract]. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42(Suppl): 571A.
  • 146
    Park HS, Jung HY, Park EY, Kim J, Lee WJ, Bae YS. Cutting edge: direct interaction of TLR4 with NAD(P)H oxidase 4 isozyme is essential for lipopolysaccharide-induced production of reactive oxygen species and activation of NF-kappa B. J Immunol 2004; 173: 35893593.
  • 147
    Okada C, Akbar SM, Horiike N, Onji M Early development of primary biliary cirrhosis in female C57BL/6 mice because of poly I:C administration. Liver Int 2005; 25: 595603.
  • 148
    Minter R, Fan MH, Sun J, Bi X, Neaderbichler A, Ipaktchi K, Hemmila M, et al. LPS binding protein is a mediator of Kupffer cells hypersensitivity following common bile duct ligation [Abstract]. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42(Suppl): 446A.
  • 149
    Wang AP, Migita K, Ito M, Takii Y, Daikoku M, Yokoyama T, Komori A, Nakamura M, Yatsuhashi H, Ishibashi H. Hepatic expression of toll-like receptor 4 in primary biliary cirrhosis. J Autoimmun 2005; 25: 8591.
  • 150
    Kikuchi K, Lian ZX, Yang GX, Ansari AA, Ikehara S, Kaplan M, et al. Bacterial CpG induces hyper-IgM production in CD27(+) memory B cells in primary biliary cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 2005; 128: 304312.
  • 151
    Williams JF. Carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in endotoxin tolerant and polymyxin B-treated rats. Int J Immunopharmacol 1988; 10: 975980.
  • 152
    Seki E, Tsutsui H, Iimuro Y, Naka T, Son G, Akira S, et al. Contribution of Toll-like receptor/myeloid differentiation factor 88 signaling to murine liver regeneration. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 41: 443450.
  • 153
    Sun R, Gao B. Negative regulation of liver regeneration by innate immunity (natural killer cells/interferon-gamma). Gastroenterology 2004; 127: 15251539.
  • 154
    Brun P, Castagliuolo I, Pinzani M, Palu G, Martines D. Exposure to bacterial cell wall products triggers an inflammatory phenotype in hepatic stellate cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2005; 289: G571G578.
  • 155
    Guarner C, Soriano G, Tomas A, Bulbena O, Novella MT, Balanzo J, et al. Increased serum nitrite and nitrate levels in patients with cirrhosis: relationship to endotoxemia. HEPATOLOGY 1993; 18: 11391143.
  • 156
    Riordan SM, Skinner N, Nagree A, McCallum H, McIver CJ, Kurtovic J, et al. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell expression of toll-like receptors and relation to cytokine levels in cirrhosis. HEPATOLOGY 2003; 37: 11541164.
  • 157
    Seki E, Brenner DA, Schwabe RF, Osawa Y, Uchinama H. TLR4 mediates inflammation and fibrogenesis after bile duct ligation. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42(Suppl): 265A266A.
  • 158
    Karin M, Greten FR. NF-kappaB: linking inflammation and immunity to cancer development and progression. Nat Rev Immunol 2005; 5: 749759.
  • 159
    Park KJ, Choi SH, Choi DH, Park JM, Yie SW, Lee SY, Hwang SB. Hepatitis C virus NS5A protein modulates c-Jun N-terminal kinase through interaction with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2. J Biol Chem 2003; 278: 307113078.
  • 160
    Maeda S, Kamata H, Luo JL, Leffert H, Karin M. IKKbeta couples hepatocyte death to cytokine-driven compensatory proliferation that promotes chemical hepatocarcinogenesis. Cell 2005; 121: 977990.
  • 161
    Beutler B. Inferences, questions and possibilities in Toll-like receptor signaling. Nature 2004; 430: 257263.
  • 162
    Visintin A, Halmen KA, Latz E, Monks BG, Golenbock DT. Pharmacological inhibition of endotoxin responses is achieved by targeting the TLR4 co-receptor, MD-2. J Immunol 2005; 175: 64656472.
  • 163
    Kawata T, Bristol JR, Rossignol DP, Rose JR, Kobayashi S, Yokohama H, et al. E5531, a synthetic non-toxic lipid A derivative blocks the immunobiological activities of lipopolysaccharide. Br J Pharmacol 1999; 127: 853862.
  • 164
    Bartfai T, Behrens MM, Gaidarova S, Pemberton J, Shivanyuk A, Rebek J Jr. A low molecular weight mimic of the Toll/IL-1 receptor/resistance domain inhibits IL-1 receptor-mediated responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003; 100: 79717976.
  • 165
    Meng G, Rutz M, Schiemann M, Metzger J, Grabiec A, Schwandner R, et al. Antagonistic antibody prevents toll-like receptor 2-driven lethal shock-like syndromes. J Clin Invest 2004; 113: 14731481.
  • 166
    Xie FY, Woodle MC, Lu PY. Harnessing in vivo siRNA delivery for drug discovery and therapeutic development. Drug Discov Today 2006; 11: 6773.
  • 167
    McHutchinson J, Bacon B, Gordon SC, Lawitz E, Shiffman M, Afdhal NH, Jacobson I, et al. Relationships of HCV RNA responses to CpG10101, a TLR9 agonist: pharmacodynamics and patient characteristics [Abstract]. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42(Suppl): 249A.
  • 168
    Lee J, Wu CC, Lee KJ, Chuang TH, Katakura K, Liu YT, et al. Activation of anti-hepatitis C virus responses via Toll-like receptor 7. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006; 103: 18281833.
  • 169
    Horsmans Y, Berg T, Desager JP, Mueller T, Schott E, Fletcher SP, et al. Isatoribine, an agonist of TLR7, reduces plasma virus concentration in chronic hepatitis C infection. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42: 724731.
  • 170
    Heikenwalder M, Polymenidou M, Junt T, Sigurdson C, Wagner H, Akira S, et al. Lymphoid follicle destruction and immunosuppression after repeated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide administration. Nat Med 2004; 10: 187192.
  • 171
    Toubi E, Shoenfeld Y. Toll-like receptors and their role in the development of autoimmune diseases. Autoimmunity 2004; 37: 183188.
  • 172
    Rifkin IR, Leadbetter EA, Busconi L, Viglianti G, Marshak-Rothstein A. Toll-like receptors, endogenous ligands, and systemic autoimmune disease. Immunol Rev 2005; 204: 2742.
  • 173
    Wang RF, Peng G, Wang HY. Regulatory T cells and Toll-like receptors in tumor immunity. Semin Immunol 2006; 18: 136142.
  • 174
    Pasare C, Medzhitov R. Toll-like receptors: balancing host resistance with immune tolerance. Curr Opin Immunol 2003; 15: 677682.