Interindividual variation exists in response to statin therapy. It has been hypothesized that subjects with higher baseline cholesterol synthesis rates are more sensitive to statins. To directly test this hypothesis, mice overexpressing the heterodimeric ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter G5/G8 (G5G8Tg mice) were treated with lovastatin because they have a compensatory increase in cholesterol biosynthesis as a result of increased cholesterol excretion into bile and feces. As expected, lovastatin treatment did not alter plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels in wild-type mice. Interestingly, this treatment significantly reduced plasma concentration and hepatic content of cholesterol by 42% and 17.3%, respectively, in the statin-treated versus untreated G5G8Tg mice despite a greater feedback upregulation of genes in the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis in the lovastatin-treated G5G8Tg mice. The reduced plasma cholesterol concentration is unlikely to be attributed to LDL and HDL receptors because the protein levels of both receptors remained unchanged. Surprisingly, statin treatment resulted in an increase in biliary cholesterol concentration, which was associated with an upregulation in hepatic mRNA and protein levels of ABCG5 and ABCG8, and in hepatic mRNA levels of Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1), a gene that is required for intestinal cholesterol absorption. In conclusion, mice with higher endogenous cholesterol synthesis rates are more sensitive to statin. A synergistic hypocholesterolemic effect could be potentially achieved in humans by simultaneously inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis and promoting ABCG5/ABCG8-mediated cholesterol excretion. (HEPATOLOGY 2006;44:1259–1266.)