Secondary sclerosing cholangitis (SSC) is a disease that is morphologically similar to primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) but that originates from a known pathological process. Its clinical and cholangiographic features may mimic PSC, yet its natural history may be more favorable if recognition is prompt and appropriate therapy is introduced. Thus, the diagnosis of PSC requires the exclusion of secondary causes of sclerosing cholangitis and recognition of associated conditions that may potentially imitate its classic cholangiographic features. Well-described causes of SSC include intraductal stone disease, surgical or blunt abdominal trauma, intra-arterial chemotherapy, and recurrent pancreatitis. However, a wide variety of other associations have been reported recently, including autoimmune pancreatitis, portal biliopathy, eosinophillic and/or mast cell cholangitis, hepatic inflammatory pseudotumor, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis, primary immune deficiency, and AIDS-related cholangiopathy. This article offers a comprehensive review of SSC. (HEPATOLOGY 2006;44:1063–1074.)