Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication therapy is a useful treatment for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Some investigators have also reported the effects of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) monotherapy on ITP. We performed a randomized study of HP eradication therapy and PPI monotherapy on ITP. Four of nine patients achieved complete remission (CR), two of nine achieved partial remission (PR) in HP eradication therapy, three of eight achieved CR, and two of eight achieved PR in PPI monotherapy. No significant differences were observed in the CR + PR of these patients between HP eradication therapy and PPI monotherapy. As for cost comparisons, HP eradication therapy is cheaper than PPI monotherapy, but it is less effective.