SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Beasley RP, Hwang LY. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma. In: VyasGN, DienstagJL, HoofnagleJH, eds. Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease. New York: Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1984: 209224.
  • 2
    Tiollais P, Pourcel C, Dejean A. The hepatitis B virus. Nature 1985; 317: 489495.
  • 3
    Henkler F, Koshy R. Hepatitis B virus transcriptional activators: mechanisms and possible role in oncogenesis. J Viral Hepat 1996; 3: 109121.
  • 4
    Feitelson MA, Duan XL. Hepatitis B virus x antigen in the pathogenesis of chronic infections and the development of HCC. Amer J Pathol 1997; 150: 11411157.
  • 5
    Feitelson MA, Lega L, Duan LX, Clayton MM. Characteristics of woodchuck hepatitis X antigen in the livers and sera from chronically infected animals. J Hepatol 1993; 17( Suppl 3): S24S34.
  • 6
    Jin YM, Yun C, Park C, Wang H J, Cho H. Expression of hepatitis B virus X protein is closely correlated with the high periportal inflammatory activity of liver diseases. J Viral Hepat 2001; 8: 322330.
  • 7
    Hohne M, Schaefer S, Seifer M, Feitelson MA, Paul D, Gerlich WG. Malignant transformation of immortalized hepatocytes by HBV DNA. EMBO J 1990; 9: 11371145.
  • 8
    Kim CM, Koike K, Saito I, Miyamura T, Jay G. HBx gene of HBV induces liver cancer in transgenic mice. Nature 1991; 351: 317320.
  • 9
    Rossner MT. Hepatitis B virus X-gene product: a promiscuous transcriptional activator. J Med Virol 1992; 36: 101117.
  • 10
    Doria M, Klein N, Lucito R, Schneider RJ. The hepatitis B virus HBx protein is a dual specificity cytoplasmic activator of Ras and nuclear activator of transcription factors. EMBO J 1995; 14: 47474757.
  • 11
    Feitelson MA, Reis H, Pan J, Lian Z, Fang J, Liu J, et al. Abrogation of negative growth regulatory pathways by HBxAg in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. In: FleigWE, ed. Normal and Malignant Liver Cell Growth: FALK Workshop. Lancaster, UK: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999: 156170.
  • 12
    Iljin K, Karkkainen MJ, Lawrence EC, Kimak MA, Uutela M, Taipale J, et al. VEGFR3 gene structure, regulatory region, and sequence polymorphisms. FASEB J 2001; 15: 10281036.
  • 13
    Alitalo K, Carmeliet P. Molecular mechanisms of lymphangiogenesis in health and disease. Cancer Cell 2002; 1: 219227.
  • 14
    Su JL, Yang PC, Shih JY, Yang CY, Wei LH, Hsieh CY, Chou CH, et al. The VEGF-C/Flt-4 axis promotes invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. Cancer Cell 2006; 9: 209223.
  • 15
    Dhar DK, Naora H, Yamanoi A, Ono T, Kohno H, Otani H, et al. Requisite role of VEGF receptors in angiogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma: a comparison with angiopoietin/Tie pathway. Anticancer Res 2002; 22: 379386.
  • 16
    Poon RTP, Lau CPK, Cheung ST, Yu WC, Fan ST. Quantitative correlation of serum levels and tumor expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Res 2003; 63: 31213126.
  • 17
    Bando H, Brokelmann M, Toi M, Alitalo K, Sleeman JP, Sipos B, et al. Immunodetection and quantification of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 in human malignant tumor tissues. Int J Cancer 2004; 11: 184191.
  • 18
    Wang JF, Zhang X, Groopman JE. Activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 and its downstream signaling promote cell survival under oxidative stress. J Biol Chem 2004; 279: 2708827097.
  • 19
    Klein NP, Schneider RJ. Activation of src family kinases by hepatitis B virus HBx protein and coupled signaling to ras. Mol Cell Biol 1997; 17: 64276436.
  • 20
    Ito Y, Kawakatsu H, Takeda T. Activation of c-Src gene product in hepatocellular carcinoma is highly correlated with the indices of early stage phenotype. J Hepatol 2001; 35: 6873.
  • 21
    Bouchard M, Giannakopoulos S, Wang EH, Tanese N, Schneider RJ. Hepatitis B virus HBx protein activation of cyclin A-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 complexes and G1 transit via src kinase pathway. J Virol 2001; 75: 42474257.
  • 22
    Shih WL, Kuo ML, Chuang SE, Cheng AL, Doong SL. Hepatitis B virus X protein inhibits transforming growth factor-beta -induced apoptosis through the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. J Biol Chem 2000; 275: 2585825864.
  • 23
    Nakanishi K, Sakamoto M, Yasuda J. Critical involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway in anchorage-independent growth and hematogenous intrahepatic metastasis of liver cancer. Cancer Res 2002; 62: 29712975.
  • 24
    Galland F, Karamysheva A, Pebusque MJ, Borg JP, Rottapel R, Dubreuil P, et al. The FLT4 gene encodes a transmembrane tyrosine kinase related to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. Oncogene 1993; 8: 12331240.
  • 25
    Fournier E, Dubreuil P, Dirnbaum D, Borg JP. Mutation at tyrosine residue 1337 abrogates ligand-dependent transforming capacity of the FLT4 receptor. Oncogene 1995; 11: 921931.
  • 26
    Gunningham SP, Currie MJ, Han C, Robinson BA, Scott PA, Harris AL, et al. The short form of the alternatively spliced flt-4 but not its ligand vascular endothelial growth factor C is related to lymph node metastasis in human breast cancers. Clin Cancer Res 2000; 6: 42784286.
  • 27
    Salameh A, Galvagni F, Bardelli M, Bussolino F, Oliviero S. Direct recruitment of CRK and GRB2 to VEGFR-3 induces proliferation, migration, and survival of endothelial cells through the activation of ERK, AKT, and JNK pathways. Blood 2005; 106: 34233431.
  • 28
    Lian Z, Pan J, Liu J, Zhang S, Zhu M. Arbuthnot P, Kew M, et al. The translation initiation factor, SUI1, may be a target of hepatitis B x antigen in hepatocarcinogenesis. Oncogene 1999; 18: 16771687.
  • 29
    Feitelson MA, Millman I, Duncan GD, Blumberg BS. Presence of antibodies to the polymerase gene product(s) of hepatitis B and woodchuck hepatitis virus in natural and experimental infections. J Med Virol 1988; 24: 121136.
  • 30
    Lian Z, Liu J, Pan J, Tufan NLS, Zhu M, Arbuthnot P, et al. A cellular gene up-regulated by hepatitis B virus encoded X antigen promotes hepatocellular growth and survival. HEPATOLOGY 2001; 34: 146157.
  • 31
    Pajusola K, Aprelikova O, Korhonen J, Kaipainen A, Pertovaara L, Alitalo R, et al. FLT4 receptor tyrosine kinase contains seven immunoglobulin-like loops and is expressed in multiple human tissues and cell lines. Cancer Res 1992; 52: 57385743.
  • 32
    Karkkainen MJ, Makinen T, Alitalo K. Lymphatic endothelium: a new frontier of metastasis research. Nature Cell Biol 2001; 4: E2E5.
  • 33
    Weninger W, Partanen TA, Breiteneder-Geleff S, Mayer C, Kowalski H, Mildner M, et al. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 and podoplanin suggests a lymphatic endothelial cell origin of Kasposi's sarcoma tumor cells. Lab Invest 1999; 79: 243251.
  • 34
    Chung TW, Lee YC, Ko JH, Kim CH. Hepatitis B Virus X protein modulates the expression of PTEN by inhibiting the function of p53, a transcriptional activator in liver cells. Cancer Res 2003; 63: 34533458.
  • 35
    Meyer M, Caselmann WH, Schluter V, Schreck R, Hofschneider PH, Baeuerle PA. Hepatitis B virus transactivator MHBst: activation of NF-κB, selective inhibition by antioxidants and integral membrane localization. EMBO J 1992; 11: 29913001.
  • 36
    Lian Z, Liu J, Li L, Li X, Clayton M, Wu MC, et al. Enhanced cell survival of Hep3B cells by the hepatitis B x antigen effector, URG11, is associated with up-regulation of β-catenin. HEPATOLOGY 2006; 43: 415424.
  • 37
    Henkler F, Lopes AR, Jones M, Koshy R. Erk-independent partial activation of AP-1 sites by the hepatitis B virus HBx protein. J Gen Virol 1998; 79: 27372742.
  • 38
    Liu J, Zhu M, Lian Z, Pan J, Arbuthnot P, Kew MC, Feitelson MA. Mdm-2 overexpression in hepatitis B x antigen positive hepatocellular carcinoma. In: LeeF, ed. Liver Cancer: New Research. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers. Chapter 5, 2006; 101117.
  • 39
    Hess-Stumpp H, Haberey M, Thierauch KH. PTK 787/ZK 222584, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of all known VEGF receptors, represses tumor growth with high efficiency. Chembiochem 2005; 6: 550557.
  • 40
    Dai Y, Guo Y, Frey RR, Ji Z, Curtin ML, Ahmed AA, et al. Thienopyrimidine ureas as novel and potent multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. J Med Chem 2005; 48: 60666083.
  • 41
    Brechot JM. The place of targeted treatments: receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Revue de Pneumol Clin 2004; 60(5 Pt 2): 3S683S71.
  • 42
    Kissau L, Stahl P, Mazitschek R, Giannis A, Waldmann H. Development of natural product-derived receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors based on conservation of protein domain fold. J Med Chem 2003; 46: 29172931.