SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Kaplan MM, Gershwin ME. Primary biliary cirrhosis. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 1261-1273.
  • 2
    Trauner M, Boyer JL. Cholestatic syndromes. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2003; 19: 216-231.
  • 3
    Levy C, Lindor KD. Current management of primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. J Hepatol 2003; 38( Suppl 1): S24-S37.
  • 4
    Paumgartner G, Beuers U. Mechanisms of action and therapeutic efficacy of ursodeoxycholic acid in cholestatic liver disease. Clin Liver Dis 2004; 8: 67-81.
  • 5
    Pares A, Caballeria L, Rodes J. Excellent long-term survival in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic Acid. Gastroenterology 2006; 130: 715-720.
  • 6
    Leuschner M, Dietrich CF, You T, Seidl C, Raedle J, Herrmann G, et al. Characterisation of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis responding to long term ursodeoxycholic acid treatment. Gut 2000; 46: 121-126.
  • 7
    Gylling H, Farkkila M, Vuoristo M, Miettinen TA. Metabolism of cholesterol and low- and high-density lipoproteins in primary biliary cirrhosis: cholesterol absorption and synthesis related to lipoprotein levels and their kinetics. HEPATOLOGY 1995; 21: 89-95.
  • 8
    Jahn CE, Schaefer EJ, Taam LA, Hoofnagle JH, Lindgren FT, Albers JJ, et al. Lipoprotein abnormalities in primary biliary cirrhosis. Association with hepatic lipase inhibition as well as altered cholesterol esterification. Gastroenterology 1985; 89: 1266-1278.
  • 9
    Poupon RE, Ouguerram K, Chretien Y, Verneau C, Eschwege E, Magot T, et al. Cholesterol-lowering effect of ursodeoxycholic acid in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. HEPATOLOGY 1993; 17: 577-582.
  • 10
    Allocca M, Crosignani A, Gritti A, Ghilardi G, Gobatti D, Caruso D, et al. Hypercholesterolaemia is not associated with early atherosclerotic lesions in primary biliary cirrhosis. Gut 2006; 55: 1795-1800.
  • 11
    Chauhan SS, Zucker SD. Hypercholesterolemia in primary biliary cirrhosis: getting to the heart of the matter? Gastroenterology 2003; 124: 854-856.
  • 12
    Crippin JS, Lindor KD, Jorgensen R, Kottke BA, Harrison JM, Murtaugh PA, et al. Hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in primary biliary cirrhosis: what is the risk? HEPATOLOGY 1992; 15: 858-862.
  • 13
    Longo M, Crosignani A, Battezzati PM, Squarcia Giussani C, Invernizzi P, Zuin M, et al. Hyperlipidaemic state and cardiovascular risk in primary biliary cirrhosis. Gut 2002; 51: 265-269.
  • 14
    O'Kane MJ, Lynch PL, Callender ME, Trimble ER. Abnormalities of serum apo A1 containing lipoprotein particles in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Atherosclerosis 1997; 131: 203-210.
  • 15
    Propst A, Propst T, Lechleitner M, Hoppichler F, Kathrein H, Vogel W, et al. Hypercholesterolemia in primary biliary cirrhosis is no risk factor for atherosclerosis. Dig Dis Sci 1993; 38: 379-380.
  • 16
    Downs JR, Clearfield M, Weis S, Whitney E, Shapiro DR, Beere PA, et al. Primary prevention of acute coronary events with lovastatin in men and women with average cholesterol levels: results of AFCAPS/TexCAPS. Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study. JAMA 1998; 279: 1615-1622.
  • 17
    Sacks FM, Pfeffer MA, Moye LA, Rouleau JL, Rutherford JD, Cole TG, et al. The effect of pravastatin on coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels. Cholesterol and Recurrent Events Trial investigators. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 1001-1009.
  • 18
    Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Group. Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Lancet 1994; 344: 1383-1389.
  • 19
    Shepherd J, Cobbe SM, Ford I, Isles CG, Lorimer AR, MacFarlane PW, et al. Prevention of coronary heart disease with pravastatin in men with hypercholesterolemia. West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group. N Engl J Med 1995; 333: 1301-1307.
  • 20
    The Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID) Study Group. Prevention of cardiovascular events and death with pravastatin in patients with coronary heart disease and a broad range of initial cholesterol levels. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 1349-1357.
  • 21
    Browning JD. Statins and hepatic steatosis: perspectives from the Dallas Heart Study. HEPATOLOGY 2006; 44: 466-471.
  • 22
    Chalasani N, Aljadhey H, Kesterson J, Murray MD, Hall SD. Patients with elevated liver enzymes are not at higher risk for statin hepatotoxicity. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: 1287-1292.
  • 23
    Jacobson TA. Statin safety: lessons from new drug applications for marketed statins. Am J Cardiol 2006; 97: S44-S51.
  • 24
    Law M, Rudnicka AR. Statin safety: a systematic review. Am J Cardiol 2006; 97: 52C60C.
  • 25
    Khorashadi S, Hasson NK, Cheung RC. Incidence of statin hepatotoxicity in patients with hepatitis C. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 4: 902-907.
  • 26
    Gibson K, Rindone JP. Experience with statin use in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Am J Cardiol 2005; 96: 1278-1279.
  • 27
    Del Puppo M, Galli Kienle M, Crosignani A, Petroni ML, Amati B, Zuin M, et al. Cholesterol metabolism in primary biliary cirrhosis during simvastatin and UDCA administration. J Lipid Res 2001; 42: 437-441.
  • 28
    Kamisako T, Adachi Y. Marked improvement in cholestasis and hypercholesterolemia with simvastatin in a patient with primary biliary cirrhosis. Am J Gastroenterol 1995; 90: 1187-1188.
  • 29
    Kurihara T, Akimoto M, Abe K, Ishiguro H, Niimi A, Maeda A, et al. Experimental use of pravastatin in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis associated with hypercholesterolemia. Clin Ther 1993; 15: 890-898.
  • 30
    Ritzel U, Leonhardt U, Nather M, Schafer G, Armstrong VW, Ramadori G. Simvastatin in primary biliary cirrhosis: effects on serum lipids and distinct disease markers. J Hepatol 2002; 36: 454-458.
  • 31
    Wagner M, Halilbasic E, Marschall HU, Zollner G, Fickert P, Langner C, et al. CAR and PXR agonists stimulate hepatic bile acid and bilirubin detoxification and elimination pathways in mice. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42: 420-430.
  • 32
    Karpen SJ. Exercising the nuclear option to treat cholestasis: CAR and PXR ligands. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42: 266-269.
  • 33
    Trauner M, Wagner M, Fickert P, Zollner G. Molecular regulation of hepatobiliary transport systems: clinical implications for understanding and treating cholestasis. J Clin Gastroenterol 2005; 39: S111-S124.
  • 34
    Carrella M, Feldman D, Cogoi S, Csillaghy A, Weinhold PA. Enhancement of mdr2 gene transcription mediates the biliary transfer of phosphatidylcholine supplied by an increased biosynthesis in the pravastatin-treated rat. HEPATOLOGY 1999; 29: 1825-1832.
  • 35
    Hooiveld GJ, Vos TA, Scheffer GL, Van Goor H, Koning H, Bloks V, et al. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) induce hepatic expression of the phospholipid translocase mdr2 in rats. Gastroenterology 1999; 117: 678-687.
  • 36
    Barbu VD, Corpechot C, Ping C, Chretien Y, Matsuda F, Simon T, et al. Allelic variations of hepatobiliary transporters and nuclear receptors genes determine disease behavior in primary biliary cirrhosis. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42(Suppl 1): 208A209A.
  • 37
    McCarey DW, McInnes IB, Madhok R, Hampson R, Scherbakov O, Ford I, et al. Trial of Atorvastatin in Rheumatoid Arthritis (TARA): double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2004; 363: 2015-2021.
  • 38
    Vollmer T, Key L, Durkalski V, Tyor W, Corboy J, Markovic-Plese S, et al. Oral simvastatin treatment in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Lancet 2004; 363: 1607-1608.
  • 39
    Bachorik PS, Ross JW. National Cholesterol Education Program recommendations for measurement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: executive summary. The National Cholesterol Education Program Working Group on Lipoprotein Measurement. Clin Chem 1995; 41: 1414-1420.
  • 40
    Landmesser U, Bahlmann F, Mueller M, Spiekermann S, Kirchhoff N, Schulz S, et al. Simvastatin versus ezetimibe: pleiotropic and lipid-lowering effects on endothelial function in humans. Circulation 2005; 111: 2356-2363.
  • 41
    Lehmann JM, McKee DD, Watson MA, Willson TM, Moore JT, Kliewer SA. The human orphan nuclear receptor PXR is activated by compounds that regulate CYP3A4 gene expression and cause drug interactions. J Clin Invest 1998; 102: 1016-1023.
  • 42
    Marschall HU, Wagner M, Zollner G, Fickert P, Diczfalusy U, Gumhold J, et al. Complementary stimulation of hepatobiliary transport and detoxification systems by rifampicin and ursodeoxycholic acid in humans. Gastroenterology 2005; 129: 476-485.
  • 43
    Beuers U. Drug insight: mechanisms and sites of action of ursodeoxycholic acid in cholestasis. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 3: 318-328.
  • 44
    Trauner M, Graziadei IW. Review article: mechanisms of action and therapeutic applications of ursodeoxycholic acid in chronic liver diseases. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999; 13: 979-996.
  • 45
    Landrier JF, Thomas C, Grober J, Duez H, Percevault F, Souidi M, et al. Statin induction of liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) gene expression is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha-dependent. J Biol Chem 2004; 279: 45512-45518.
  • 46
    Kok T, Bloks VW, Wolters H, Havinga R, Jansen PL, Staels B, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-mediated regulation of multidrug resistance 2 (Mdr2) expression and function in mice. Biochem J 2003; 369: 539-547.
  • 47
    Grimes DS. Are statins analogues of vitamin D? Lancet 2006; 368: 83-86.
  • 48
    Zenmyo M, Komiya S, Hamada T, Hiraoka K, Kato S, Fujii T, et al. Transcriptional activation of p21 by vitamin D(3) or vitamin K(2) leads to differentiation of p53-deficient MG-63 osteosarcoma cells. Hum Pathol 2001; 32: 410-416.
  • 49
    Zafra C, Abraldes JG, Turnes J, Berzigotti A, Fernandez M, Garca-Pagan JC, et al. Simvastatin enhances hepatic nitric oxide production and decreases the hepatic vascular tone in patients with cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: 749-755.
  • 50
    Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001; 285: 2486-2497.
  • 51
    Marz W, Scharnagl H, Winkler K, Tiran A, Nauck M, Boehm BO, et al. Low-density lipoprotein triglycerides associated with low-grade systemic inflammation, adhesion molecules, and angiographic coronary artery disease: the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study. Circulation 2004; 110: 3068-3074.