MPV17 is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein of unknown function recently recognized as responsible for a mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome. The aim of this study is to delineate the specific clinical, pathological, biochemical, and molecular features associated with mitochondrial DNA depletion due to MPV17 gene mutations. We report 4 cases from 3 ethnically diverse families with MPV17 mutations. Importantly, 2 of these cases presented with isolated liver failure during infancy without notable neurologic dysfunction. Conclusion: We therefore propose that mutations in the MPV17 gene be considered in the course of evaluating the molecular etiology for isolated, rapidly progressive infantile hepatic failure. (HEPATOLOGY 2007.)