SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    de Leeuw FE, de Groot JC, Achten E, Oudkerk M, Ramos LM, Heijboer R, et al. Prevalence of cerebral white matter lesions in elderly people: a population based magnetic resonance imaging study. The Rotterdam Scan Study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2001; 70: 914.
  • 2
    Mínguez B, Rovira A, Alonso J, Córdoba J. Decrease in the volume of white matter lesions with improvement of hepatic encephalopathy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2007; 28: 14991500.
  • 3
    Schmidt R, Enzinger C, Ropele S, Schmidt H, Fazekas F. Progression of cerebral white matter lesions: 6-year results of the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study. Lancet 2003; 361: 20462048.
  • 4
    Taylor WD, MacFall JR, Provenzale JM, Payne ME, McQuoid DR, Steffens DC, et al. Serial MR imaging of volumes of hyperintense white matter lesions in elderly patients: correlation with vascular risk factors. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2003; 181: 571576.
  • 5
    Dufouil C, Chalmers J, Coskun O, Besancon V, Bousser MG, Guillon P, et al. Effects of blood pressure lowering on cerebral white matter hyperintensities in patients with stroke: the PROGRESS (Perindopril Protection Against Recurrent Stroke Study) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Substudy. Circulation 2005; 112: 16441650.
  • 6
    Haussinger D, Kircheis G, Fischer R, Schliess F, vom Dahl S. Hepatic encephalopathy in chronic liver disease: a clinical manifestation of astrocyte swelling and low-grade cerebral edema?. J Hepatol 2000; 32: 10351038.
  • 7
    Cordoba J, Blei AT. Brain edema and hepatic encephalopathy. Semin Liver Dis 1996; 16: 271280.
  • 8
    Haussinger D, Laubenberger J, vom Dahl S, Ernst T, Bayer S, Langer M, et al. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies on human brain myo-inositol in hypo-osmolarity and hepatic encephalopathy. Gastroenterology 1994; 107: 14751480.
  • 9
    Rovira A, Grivé E, Pedraza S, Rovira A, Alonso J. Magnetization transfer ratio values and proton MR spectroscopy of normal-appearing cerebral white matter in patients with liver cirrhosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2001; 22: 11371142.
  • 10
    Cordoba J, Alonso J, Rovira A, Jacas C, Sanpedro F, Castells Ll, et al. The development of low-grade cerebral edema in cirrhosis is supported by the evolution of 1H-magnetic resonance abnormalities after liver transplantation. J Hepatol 2001; 35: 598604.
  • 11
    Rovira A, Cordoba J, Sanpedro F, Grive E, Rovira-Gols A, Alonso J. Normalization of T2 signal abnormalities in hemispheric white matter with liver transplant. Neurology 2002; 59: 335341.
  • 12
    Ortiz M, Cordoba J, Jacas C, Flavia M, Esteban R, Guardia J. Neuropsychological abnormalities in cirrhosis include learning impairment. J Hepatol 2006; 44: 104110.
  • 13
    Heaton RK, Grant I, Mathews CG. Comprehensive norms for an expanded Halstead-Reitan battery. Florida: Psychological Assessment Resources, 1991.
  • 14
    Pantoni L, Garcia JH. Pathogenesis of leukoaraiosis: a review. Stroke 1997; 28: 652659.
  • 15
    Bots ML, van Swieten JC, Breteler MM, de Jong PT, van Gijn J, Hofman A, et al. Cerebral white matter lesions and atherosclerosis in the Rotterdam Study. Lancet 1993; 341: 12321237.
  • 16
    Breteler MM, van Swieten JC, Bots ML, Grobbee DE, Claus JJ, van den Hout JH, et al. Cerebral white matter lesions, vascular risk factors, and cognitive function in a population-based study: the Rotterdam Study. Neurology 1994; 44: 12461252.
  • 17
    Longstreth WT Jr, Manolio TA, Arnold A, Burke GL, Bryan N, Jungreis CA, et al. Clinical correlates of white matter findings on cranial magnetic resonance imaging of 3301 elderly people. The Cardiovascular Health Study. Stroke 1996; 27: 12741282.
  • 18
    Kuller LH, Longstreth JrWT, Arnold AM, Bernick C, Bryan RN, Beauchamp NJ Jr. Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group. White matter hyperintensity on cranial magnetic resonance imaging: a predictor of stroke. Stroke 2004; 35: 18211825.
  • 19
    Fazekas F, Kleinert R, Offenbacher H, Schmidt R, Kleinert G, Payer F, et al. Pathologic correlates of incidental MRI white matter signal hyperintensities. Neurology 1993; 43: 16831689.
  • 20
    Vermeer SE, Prins ND, den Heijer T, Hofman A, Koudstaal PJ, Breteler MM. Silent brain infarcts and the risk of dementia and cognitive decline. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 12151222.
  • 21
    O'Brien J, Ames D, Chiu E, Schweitzer I, Desmond P, Tress B. Severe deep white matter lesions and outcome in elderly patients with major depressive disorder: follow up study. Br Med J 1998; 317: 982984.
  • 22
    Starr JM, Leaper SA, Murray AD, Lemmon HA, Staff RT, Deary IJ, et al. Brain white matter lesions detected by magnetic resonance imaging are associated with balance and gait speed. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003; 74: 9498.
  • 23
    Norenberg MD. Astroglial dysfunction in hepatic encephalopathy. Metab Brain Dis 1998; 13: 319335.
  • 24
    Hahnel S, Munkel K, Jansen O, Heiland S, Reidel M, Freund M, et al. Magnetization transfer measurements in normal-appearing cerebral white matter in patients with chronic obstructive hydrocephalus. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1999; 23: 516520.
  • 25
    Rydberg JN, Hammond CA, Grimm RC, Erickson BJ, Jack JrCR, Huston J III, et al. Initial clinical experience in MR imaging of the brain with a fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery pulse sequence. Radiology 1994; 193: 173180.
  • 26
    Schaefer PW, Grant PE, Gonzalez RG. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the brain. Radiology 2000; 217: 331345.
  • 27
    Lodi R, Tonon C, Stracciari A, Weiger M, Camaggi V, Iotti S, et al. Diffusion MRI shows increased water apparent diffusion coefficient in the brains of cirrhotics. Neurology 2004; 62: 762766.
  • 28
    Larsen FS, Wendon J. Brain edema in liver failure: basic physiologic principles and management. Liver Transpl 2002; 8: 983989.
  • 29
    Ziylan YZ, Uzum G, Bernard G, Diler AS, Bourre JM. Changes in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in acute hyperammonemia: effect of dexamethasone. Mol Chem Neuropathol 1993; 20: 203218.
  • 30
    Hazell AS, Normandin L, Norenberg MD, Kennedy G, Yi JH. Alzheimer type II astrocytic changes following sub-acute exposure to manganese and its prevention by antioxidant treatment. Neurosci Lett 2006; 396: 167171.
  • 31
    Wardlaw JM, Sandercock PA, Dennis MS, Starr J. Is breakdown of the blood-brain barrier responsible for lacunar stroke, leukoaraiosis, and dementia?. Stroke 2003; 34: 806812.
  • 32
    McCrea M, Cordoba J, Vessey G, Blei AT, Randolph C. Neuropsychological characterization and detection of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. Arch Neurol 1996; 53: 758763.
  • 33
    O'Brien JT, Erkinjuntti T, Reisberg B, Roman G, Sawada T, Pantoni L, et al. Vascular cognitive impairment. Lancet Neurol 2003; 2: 8998.
  • 34
    Wijdicks EFM. Neurotoxicity of immunosuppressive drugs. Liver Transpl 2001; 7: 937942.
  • 35
    Coley SC, Porter DA, Calamante F, Chong WK, Connelly A. Quantitative MR diffusion mapping and cyclosporine-induced neurotoxicity. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1999; 20: 15071510.
  • 36
    Besenski N, Rumboldt Z, Emovon O, Nicholas J, Kini S, Milutinovic J, et al. Brain MR imaging abnormalities in kidney transplant recipients. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2005; 26: 22822289.