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Supplementary material for this article can be found on the H EPATOLOGY Web site ( http://interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0270-9139/suppmat/index.html ).

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hep22239-SupplFig.1.pdf67K Fig. 1. Protection against palmitate and stearate-induced apoptosis by GA in rat primary hepatocytes.Rat primary hepatocytes were treated with palmitate (PA, 0.5 mM) or stearate (SA, 0.5 mM) together with GA (0 to 5 μM) for 24 h and stained with Annexin V and propidium iodide using BD ApoAlert Annexin V kit according to the protocol recommended by the manufacturer. Annexin V/propidium iodide-stained cells were visualized under fluorescence microscope with a 20 x objective using a dual filter set for FITC and rhodamine. Images were recorded using BioLab software. a. Vehicle control (DMSO); b. PA (0.5 mM); c. PA + GA (1 μM); d. PA+ GA (5 μM); e. SA (0.5 mM); f. PA+GA (1 μM); g. SA + GA (5 μM).
hep22239-SupplFig.2.pdf139K Fig. 2. Effect of GA on palmitate and stearate-induced cytochrome c release in primary rat hepatocytes.Rat primary hepatocytes were treated with (A) palmitate (PA, 0.5 mM); (B) stearate (SA, 0.5 mM) in the presence or absence of GA (0.5 μM or 1 μM) for 24 h. The protein levels of cytochrome c in the cytosol were detected by western blot analysis using specific antibody as described in "Methods". β-actin was used as protein loading control. Immunoblots are representative of three different experiments.
hep22239-SupplFig.3.pdf75K Fig. 3. Effect of GA on palmitate and stearate-induced cathepsin B expression in primary rat hepatocytes.Rat primary hepatocytes were treated with (A) palmitate (PA, 0.5 mM); (B) stearate (SA, 0.5 mM); (C) oleate (OA, 0.5 mM) in the presence or absence of GA (0.5 μM or 1 μM) for 24 h. The protein levels of cathepsin B in the cytosol were detected by western blot analysis using specific antibody to cathepsin B as described in "Methods". β-actin was used as protein loading control.
hep22239-SupplFig.4.pdf16K Fig. 4. Effect of GA on FFAs-induced TNF-a and IL-6 mRNA expression in mouse macropahges.Mouse J774A.1 cells were pretreated with GA (5 μM) for 4h, then treated with FFA (1 mM) for 24h. The mRNA levels of TNF-a and IL-6 were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and normalized using β-actin. #p<0.05 compared to control group; *p<0.05 compared to FFAs group.
hep22239-SupplFig.5.pdf68K Fig. 5. Effect of GA on FFA-induced JNK activation in HepG2 cells and primary rat hepatocytes.(a) Human HepG2 cells; (b) Rat primary hepatocytes were treated with 1 mM FFA in the absence or presence of GA (5 and 10 μM) for 24 h, the protein levels of phosho-JNK2 were detected by western blot analysis using specific antibody. Total JNK1/2 was used as protein-loading control. Immunoblots were representative of three independent experiments. The density of immunoblot was analyzed using Image J computer software (NIH).
hep22239-SupplFig.6.pdf61K Fig. 6. Effect of GA on palmitate and stearate -induced JNK activation in primary rat hepatocytes.Rat primary hepatocytes were treated with (A) palmitate (PA, 0.5 mM); (B) stearate (SA, 0.5 mM); (C) oleate (OA, 0.5 mM) in the presence or absence of GA (0.5 μM or 1 μM) for 24 h. The protein levels of cytochrome c in the cytosol were detected by western blot analysis using specific antibody as described in "Methods". β-actin was used as protein loading control.

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