SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    de Groen PC, Gores GJ, LaRusso NF, Gunderson LL, Nagorney DM. Biliary tract cancers. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 13681378.
  • 2
    Welzel TM, McGlynn KA, Hsing AW, O'Brien TR, Pfeiffer RM. Impact of classification of hilar cholangiocarcinomas (Klatskin tumors) on the incidence of intra- and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006; 98: 873875.
  • 3
    Farley DR, Weaver AL, Nagorney DM. “Natural history” of unresected cholangiocarcinoma: patient outcome after noncurative intervention. Mayo Clin Proc 1995; 70: 425429.
  • 4
    Lim JH, Park CK. Pathology of cholangiocarcinoma. Abdom Imaging 2004; 29: 540547.
  • 5
    Shaib Y, El-Serag HB. The epidemiology of cholangiocarcinoma. Semin Liver Dis 2004; 24: 115125.
  • 6
    McLean L, Patel T. Racial and ethnic variations in the epidemiology of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in the United States. Liver Int 2006; 26: 10471053.
  • 7
    Shaib YH, Davila JA, McGlynn K, El-Serag HB. Rising incidence of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in the United States: a true increase? J Hepatol 2004; 40: 472477.
  • 8
    Patel T. Increasing incidence and mortality of primary intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in the United States. HEPATOLOGY 2001; 33: 13531357.
  • 9
    Mouzas IA, Dimoulios P, Vlachonikolis IG, Skordilis P, Zoras O, Kouroumalis E. Increasing incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in Crete 1992-2000. Anticancer Res 2002; 22: 36373641.
  • 10
    Okuda K, Nakanuma Y, Miyazaki M. Cholangiocarcinoma: recent progress. Part 2: molecular pathology and treatment. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2002; 17: 10561063.
  • 11
    Yoon JH, Canbay AE, Werneburg NW, Lee SP, Gores GJ. Oxysterols induce cyclooxygenase-2 expression in cholangiocytes: implications for biliary tract carcinogenesis. HEPATOLOGY 2004; 39: 732738.
  • 12
    Burak K, Angulo P, Pasha TM, Egan K, Petz J, Lindor KD. Incidence and risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma in primary sclerosing cholangitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2004; 99: 523526.
    Direct Link:
  • 13
    Bergquist A, Ekbom A, Olsson R, Kornfeldt D, Loof L, Danielsson A, et al. Hepatic and extrahepatic malignancies in primary sclerosing cholangitis. J Hepatol 2002; 36: 321327.
  • 14
    Watanapa P, Watanapa WB. Liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma. Br J Surg 2002; 89: 962970.
  • 15
    Kurathong S, Lerdverasirikul P, Wongpaitoon V, Pramoolsinsap C, Kanjanapitak A, Varavithya W, et al. Opisthorchis viverrini infection and cholangiocarcinoma. A prospective, case-controlled study. Gastroenterology 1985; 89: 151156.
  • 16
    Tesana S, Takahashi Y, Sithithaworn P, Ando K, Sakakura T, Yutanawiboonchai W, et al. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical analysis of cholangiocarcinoma in immunized Syrian golden hamsters infected with Opisthorchis viverrini and administered with dimethylnitrosamine. Parasitol Int 2000; 49: 239251.
  • 17
    Parkin DM, Srivatanakul P, Khlat M, Chenvidhya D, Chotiwan P, Insiripong S, et al. Liver cancer in Thailand. I. A case-control study of cholangiocarcinoma Int J Cancer 1991; 48: 323328.
  • 18
    Kubo S, Kinoshita H, Hirohashi K, Hamba H. Hepatolithiasis associated with cholangiocarcinoma. World J Surg 1995; 19: 637641.
  • 19
    Lesurtel M, Regimbeau JM, Farges O, Colombat M, Sauvanet A, Belghiti J. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hepatolithiasis: an unusual association in Western countries. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2002; 14: 10251027.
  • 20
    Su CH, Shyr YM, Lui WY, P'Eng FK. Hepatolithiasis associated with cholangiocarcinoma. Br J Surg 1997; 84: 969973.
  • 21
    Chapman RW. Risk factors for biliary tract carcinogenesis. Ann Oncol 1999; 10(Suppl 4): 308311.
  • 22
    Lipsett PA, Pitt HA, Colombani PM, Boitnott JK, Cameron JL. Choledochal cyst disease. A changing pattern of presentation. Ann Surg 1994; 220: 644652.
  • 23
    Scott J, Shousha S, Thomas HC, Sherlock S. Bile duct carcinoma: a late complication of congenital hepatic fibrosis. Case report and review of literature. Am J Gastroenterol 1980; 73: 113119.
  • 24
    Shaib YH, El-Serag HB, Nooka AK, Thomas M, Brown TD, Patt YZ, et al. Risk factors for intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: a hospital-based case-control study. Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102: 10161021.
    Direct Link:
  • 25
    Tocchi A, Mazzoni G, Liotta G, Lepre L, Cassini D, Miccini M. Late development of bile duct cancer in patients who had biliary-enteric drainage for benign disease: a follow-up study of more than 1,000 patients. Ann Surg 2001; 234: 210214.
  • 26
    Bettschart V, Clayton RA, Parks RW, Garden OJ, Bellamy CO. Cholangiocarcinoma arising after biliary-enteric drainage procedures for benign disease. Gut 2002; 51: 128129.
  • 27
    Walker NJ, Crockett PW, Nyska A, Brix AE, Jokinen MP, Sells DM, et al. Dose-additive carcinogenicity of a defined mixture of “dioxin-like compounds”. Environ Health Perspect 2005; 113: 4348.
  • 28
    Nomoto K, Tsuneyama K, Cheng C, Takahashi H, Hori R, Murai Y, et al. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma arising in cirrhotic liver frequently expressed p63-positive basal/stem-cell phenotype. Pathol Res Pract 2006; 202: 7176.
  • 29
    Sell S, Dunsford HA. Evidence for the stem cell origin of hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. Am J Pathol 1989; 134: 13471363.
  • 30
    Jaiswal M, LaRusso NF, Gores GJ. Nitric oxide in gastrointestinal epithelial cell carcinogenesis: linking inflammation to oncogenesis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2001; 281: G626G634.
  • 31
    Jaiswal M, LaRusso NF, Burgart LJ, Gores GJ. Inflammatory cytokines induce DNA damage and inhibit DNA repair in cholangiocarcinoma cells by a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. Cancer Res 2000; 60: 184190.
  • 32
    Jaiswal M, LaRusso NF, Nishioka N, Nakabeppu Y, Gores GJ. Human Ogg1, a protein involved in the repair of 8-oxoguanine, is inhibited by nitric oxide. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 63886393.
  • 33
    Dergham ST, Dugan MC, Kucway R, Du W, Kamarauskiene DS, Vaitkevicius VK, et al. Prevalence and clinical significance of combined K-ras mutation and p53 aberration in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Int J Pancreatol 1997; 21: 127143.
  • 34
    Z'Graggen K, Rivera JA, Compton CC, Pins M, Werner J, Fernandez-del Castillo C, et al. Prevalence of activating K-ras mutations in the evolutionary stages of neoplasia in intraductal papillary mucinous tumors of the pancreas. Ann Surg 1997; 226: 491498 [discussion: 498–500].
  • 35
    Boberg KM, Schrumpf E, Bergquist A, Broome U, Pares A, Remotti H, et al. Cholangiocarcinoma in primary sclerosing cholangitis: K-ras mutations and Tp53 dysfunction are implicated in the neoplastic development. J Hepatol 2000; 32: 374380.
  • 36
    Furubo S, Harada K, Shimonishi T, Katayanagi K, Tsui W, Nakanuma Y. Protein expression and genetic alterations of p53 and ras in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Histopathology 1999; 35: 230240.
  • 37
    Tannapfel A, Benicke M, Katalinic A, Uhlmann D, Kockerling F, Hauss J, et al. Frequency of p16(INK4A) alterations and K-ras mutations in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma of the liver. Gut 2000; 47: 721727.
  • 38
    Ahrendt SA, Rashid A, Chow JT, Eisenberger CF, Pitt HA, Sidransky D. p53 overexpression and K-ras gene mutations in primary sclerosing cholangitis-associated biliary tract cancer. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2000; 7: 426431.
  • 39
    Isa T, Tomita S, Nakachi A, Miyazato H, Shimoji H, Kusano T, et al. Analysis of microsatellite instability, K-ras gene mutation and p53 protein overexpression in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Hepatogastroenterology 2002; 49: 604608.
  • 40
    Watanabe M, Asaka M, Tanaka J, Kurosawa M, Kasai M, Miyazaki T. Point mutation of K-ras gene codon 12 in biliary tract tumors. Gastroenterology 1994; 107: 11471153.
  • 41
    Tada M, Omata M, Ohto M. High incidence of ras gene mutation in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Cancer 1992; 69: 11151118.
  • 42
    Levi S, Urbano-Ispizua A, Gill R, Thomas DM, Gilbertson J, Foster C, et al. Multiple K-ras codon 12 mutations in cholangiocarcinomas demonstrated with a sensitive polymerase chain reaction technique. Cancer Res 1991; 51: 34973502.
  • 43
    Kang YK, Kim WH, Lee HW, Lee HK, Kim YI. Mutation of p53 and K-ras, and loss of heterozygosity of APC in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Lab Invest 1999; 79: 477483.
  • 44
    Hahn SA, Bartsch D, Schroers A, Galehdari H, Becker M, Ramaswamy A, et al. Mutations of the DPC4/Smad4 gene in biliary tract carcinoma. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 11241126.
  • 45
    Taniai M, Higuchi H, Burgart LJ, Gores GJ. p16INK4a promoter mutations are frequent in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and PSC-associated cholangiocarcinoma. Gastroenterology 2002; 123: 10901098.
  • 46
    Hodge DR, Hurt EM, Farrar WL. The role of IL-6 and STAT3 in inflammation and cancer. Eur J Cancer 2005; 41: 25022512.
  • 47
    Sansone P, Storci G, Tavolari S, Guarnieri T, Giovannini C, Taffurelli M, et al. IL-6 triggers malignant features in mammospheres from human ductal breast carcinoma and normal mammary gland. J Clin Invest 2007; 117: 39884002.
  • 48
    Gao SP, Mark KG, Leslie K, Pao W, Motoi N, Gerald WL, et al. Mutations in the EGFR kinase domain mediate STAT3 activation via IL-6 production in human lung adenocarcinomas. J Clin Invest 2007; 117: 38463856.
  • 49
    Okada K, Shimizu Y, Nambu S, Higuchi K, Watanabe A. Interleukin-6 functions as an autocrine growth factor in a cholangiocarcinoma cell line. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1994; 9: 462467.
  • 50
    Goydos JS, Brumfield AM, Frezza E, Booth A, Lotze MT, Carty SE. Marked elevation of serum interleukin-6 in patients with cholangiocarcinoma: validation of utility as a clinical marker. Ann Surg 1998; 227: 398404.
  • 51
    Yokomuro S, Tsuji H, Lunz JG 3rd, Sakamoto T, Ezure T, Murase N, et al. Growth control of human biliary epithelial cells by interleukin 6, hepatocyte growth factor, transforming growth factor beta1, and activin A: comparison of a cholangiocarcinoma cell line with primary cultures of non-neoplastic biliary epithelial cells. HEPATOLOGY 2000; 32: 2635.
  • 52
    Park J, Tadlock L, Gores GJ, Patel T. Inhibition of interleukin 6-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase activation attenuates growth of a cholangiocarcinoma cell line. HEPATOLOGY 1999; 30: 11281133.
  • 53
    Isomoto H, Mott JL, Kobayashi S, Werneburg NW, Bronk SF, Haan S, et al. Sustained IL-6/STAT-3 signaling in cholangiocarcinoma cells due to SOCS-3 epigenetic silencing. Gastroenterology 2007; 132: 384396.
  • 54
    Isomoto H, Kobayashi S, Werneburg NW, Bronk SF, Guicciardi ME, Frank DA, et al. Interleukin 6 upregulates myeloid cell leukemia-1 expression through a STAT3 pathway in cholangiocarcinoma cells. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42: 13291338.
  • 55
    Kobayashi S, Werneburg NW, Bronk SF, Kaufmann SH, Gores GJ. Interleukin-6 contributes to Mcl-1 up-regulation and TRAIL resistance via an Akt-signaling pathway in cholangiocarcinoma cells. Gastroenterology 2005; 128: 20542065.
  • 56
    Bodnar AG, Ouellette M, Frolkis M, Holt SE, Chiu CP, Morin GB, et al. Extension of life-span by introduction of telomerase into normal human cells. Science 1998; 279: 349352.
  • 57
    Kim NW, Piatyszek MA, Prowse KR, Harley CB, West MD, Ho PL, et al. Specific association of human telomerase activity with immortal cells and cancer. Science 1994; 266: 20112015.
  • 58
    Ozaki S, Harada K, Sanzen T, Watanabe K, Tsui W, Nakanuma Y. In situ nucleic acid detection of human telomerase in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and its preneoplastic lesion. HEPATOLOGY 1999; 30: 914919.
  • 59
    Itoi T, Shinohara Y, Takeda K, Takei K, Ohno H, Ohyashiki K, et al. Detection of telomerase activity in biopsy specimens for diagnosis of biliary tract cancers. Gastrointest Endosc 2000; 52: 380386.
  • 60
    Iki K, Tsujiuchi T, Majima T, Sakitani H, Tsutsumi M, Takahama M, et al. Increased telomerase activity in intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinomas induced by N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine in hamsters. Cancer Lett 1998; 131: 185190.
  • 61
    Yamagiwa Y, Meng F, Patel T. Interleukin-6 decreases senescence and increases telomerase activity in malignant human cholangiocytes. Life Sci 2006; 78: 24942502.
  • 62
    Tadlock L, Patel T. Involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in transformed growth of a cholangiocarcinoma cell line. HEPATOLOGY 2001; 33: 4351.
  • 63
    Wehbe H, Henson R, Meng F, Mize-Berge J, Patel T. Interleukin-6 contributes to growth in cholangiocarcinoma cells by aberrant promoter methylation and gene expression. Cancer Res 2006; 66: 1051710524.
  • 64
    Yoon JH, Gwak GY, Lee HS, Bronk SF, Werneburg NW, Gores GJ. Enhanced epidermal growth factor receptor activation in human cholangiocarcinoma cells. J Hepatol 2004; 41: 808814.
  • 65
    Werneburg NW, Yoon JH, Higuchi H, Gores GJ. Bile acids activate EGF receptor via a TGF-alpha-dependent mechanism in human cholangiocyte cell lines. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2003; 285: G31G36.
  • 66
    Yoon JH, Higuchi H, Werneburg NW, Kaufmann SH, Gores GJ. Bile acids induce cyclooxygenase-2 expression via the epidermal growth factor receptor in a human cholangiocarcinoma cell line. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 985993.
  • 67
    Endo K, Yoon BI, Pairojkul C, Demetris AJ, Sirica AE. ERBB-2 overexpression and cyclooxygenase-2 up-regulation in human cholangiocarcinoma and risk conditions. HEPATOLOGY 2002; 36: 439450.
  • 68
    Han C, Leng J, Demetris AJ, Wu T. Cyclooxygenase-2 promotes human cholangiocarcinoma growth: evidence for cyclooxygenase-2-independent mechanism in celecoxib-mediated induction of p21waf1/cip1 and p27kip1 and cell cycle arrest. Cancer Res 2004; 64: 13691376.
  • 69
    Nzeako UC, Guicciardi ME, Yoon JH, Bronk SF, Gores GJ. COX-2 inhibits Fas-mediated apoptosis in cholangiocarcinoma cells. HEPATOLOGY 2002; 35: 552559.
  • 70
    Ishimura N, Bronk SF, Gores GJ. Inducible nitric oxide synthase upregulates cyclooxygenase-2 in mouse cholangiocytes promoting cell growth. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2004; 287: G88G95.
  • 71
    Han C, Wu T. Cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostaglandin E2 promotes human cholangiocarcinoma cell growth and invasion through EP1 receptor-mediated activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and Akt. J Biol Chem 2005; 280: 2405324063.
  • 72
    Wu T, Han C, Lunz JG 3rd, Michalopoulos G, Shelhamer JH, Demetris AJ. Involvement of 85-kd cytosolic phospholipase A(2) and cyclooxygenase-2 in the proliferation of human cholangiocarcinoma cells. HEPATOLOGY 2002; 36: 363373.
  • 73
    Lai GH, Zhang Z, Shen XN, Ward DJ, Dewitt JL, Holt SE, et al. erbB-2/neu transformed rat cholangiocytes recapitulate key cellular and molecular features of human bile duct cancer. Gastroenterology 2005; 129: 20472057.
  • 74
    Aishima SI, Taguchi KI, Sugimachi K, Shimada M, Tsuneyoshi M. c-erbB-2 and c-Met expression relates to cholangiocarcinogenesis and progression of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Histopathology 2002; 40: 269278.
  • 75
    Terada T, Nakanuma Y, Sirica AE. Immunohistochemical demonstration of MET overexpression in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and in hepatolithiasis. Hum Pathol 1998; 29: 175180.
  • 76
    Lai GH, Radaeva S, Nakamura T, Sirica AE. Unique epithelial cell production of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor by putative precancerous intestinal metaplasias and associated “intestinal-type” biliary cancer chemically induced in rat liver. HEPATOLOGY 2000; 31: 12571265.
  • 77
    Olnes MJ, Erlich R. A review and update on cholangiocarcinoma. Oncology 2004; 66: 167179.
  • 78
    Khan SA, Davidson BR, Goldin R, Pereira SP, Rosenberg WM, Taylor-Robinson SD, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of cholangiocarcinoma: consensus document. Gut 2002; 51(Suppl 6): VI19.
  • 79
    Hann LE, Getrajdman GI, Brown KT, Bach AM, Teitcher JB, Fong Y, et al. Hepatic lobar atrophy: association with ipsilateral portal vein obstruction. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1996; 167: 10171021.
  • 80
    Chen CY, Shiesh SC, Tsao HC, Lin XZ. The assessment of biliary CA 125, CA 19-9 and CEA in diagnosing cholangiocarcinoma—the influence of sampling time and hepatolithiasis. Hepatogastroenterology 2002; 49: 616620.
  • 81
    Nehls O, Gregor M, Klump B. Serum and bile markers for cholangiocarcinoma. Semin Liver Dis 2004; 24: 139154.
  • 82
    Siqueira E, Schoen RE, Silverman W, Martin J, Rabinovitz M, Weissfeld JL, et al. Detecting cholangiocarcinoma in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Gastrointest Endosc 2002; 56: 4047.
  • 83
    Levy C, Lymp J, Angulo P, Gores GJ, Larusso N, Lindor KD. The value of serum CA 19-9 in predicting cholangiocarcinomas in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Dig Dis Sci 2005; 50: 17341740.
  • 84
    Patel AH, Harnois DM, Klee GG, LaRusso NF, Gores GJ. The utility of CA 19-9 in the diagnoses of cholangiocarcinoma in patients without primary sclerosing cholangitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 204207.
    Direct Link:
  • 85
    Narimatsu H, Iwasaki H, Nakayama F, Ikehara Y, Kudo T, Nishihara S, et al. Lewis and secretor gene dosages affect CA19–9 and DU-PAN-2 serum levels in normal individuals and colorectal cancer patients. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 512518.
  • 86
    Vestergaard EM, Hein HO, Meyer H, Grunnet N, Jorgensen J, Wolf H, et al. Reference values and biological variation for tumor marker CA 19-9 in serum for different Lewis and secretor genotypes and evaluation of secretor and Lewis genotyping in a Caucasian population. Clin Chem 1999; 45: 5461.
  • 87
    Akdogan M, Sasmaz N, Kayhan B, Biyikoglu I, Disibeyaz S, Sahin B. Extraordinarily elevated CA19–9 in benign conditions: a case report and review of the literature. Tumori 2001; 87: 337339.
  • 88
    Albert MB, Steinberg WM, Henry JP. Elevated serum levels of tumor marker CA19–9 in acute cholangitis. Dig Dis Sci 1988; 33: 12231225.
  • 89
    Robledo R, Muro A, Prieto ML. Extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma: US characteristics and accuracy in demonstration of tumors. Radiology 1996; 198: 869873.
  • 90
    Slattery JM, Sahani DV. What is the current state-of-the-art imaging for detection and staging of cholangiocarcinoma? Oncologist 2006; 11: 913922.
  • 91
    Foley WD, Quiroz FA. The role of sonography in imaging of the biliary tract. Ultrasound Q 2007; 23: 123135.
  • 92
    Gores GJ. Early detection and treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. Liver Transpl 2000; 6: S30S34.
  • 93
    Braga HJ, Imam K, Bluemke DA. MR imaging of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: use of ferumoxides for lesion localization and extension. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2001; 177: 111114.
  • 94
    Raman SS, Lu DS, Chen SC, Sayre J, Eilber F, Economou J. Hepatic MR imaging using ferumoxides: prospective evaluation with surgical and intraoperative sonographic confirmation in 25 cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2001; 177: 807812.
  • 95
    Gleeson FC, Rajan E, Levy MJ, Clain JE, Topazian MD, Harewood GC, et al. EUS-guided FNA of regional lymph nodes in patients with unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Gastrointest Endosc 2008; 67: 438443.
  • 96
    Malhi H, Gores GJ. Review article: the modern diagnosis and therapy of cholangiocarcinoma. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006; 23: 12871296.
  • 97
    Petrowsky H, Wildbrett P, Husarik DB, Hany TF, Tam S, Jochum W, et al. Impact of integrated positron emission tomography and computed tomography on staging and management of gallbladder cancer and cholangiocarcinoma. J Hepatol 2006; 45: 4350.
  • 98
    Fritscher-Ravens A, Bohuslavizki KH, Broering DC, Jenicke L, Schafer H, Buchert R, et al. FDG PET in the diagnosis of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Nucl Med Commun 2001; 22: 12771285.
  • 99
    Corvera CU, Blumgart LH, Akhurst T, DeMatteo RP, D'Angelica M, Fong Y, et al. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography influences management decisions in patients with biliary cancer. J Am Coll Surg 2008; 206: 5765.
  • 100
    Dumonceau JM, Macias Gomez C, Casco C, Genevay M, Marcolongo M, Bongiovanni M, et al. Grasp or brush for biliary sampling at endoscopic retrograde cholangiography? A blinded randomized controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol 2008; 103: 333340.
    Direct Link:
  • 101
    Alvaro D, Macarri G, Mancino MG, Marzioni M, Bragazzi M, Onori P, et al. Serum and biliary insulin-like growth factor I and vascular endothelial growth factor in determining the cause of obstructive cholestasis. Ann Intern Med 2007; 147: 451459.
  • 102
    Baron TH, Harewood GC, Rumalla A, Pochron NL, Stadheim LM, Gores GJ, et al. A prospective comparison of digital image analysis and routine cytology for the identification of malignancy in biliary tract strictures. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004; 2: 214219.
  • 103
    Halling KC, Kipp BR. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in diagnostic cytology. Hum Pathol 2007; 38: 11371144.
  • 104
    Burke EC, Jarnagin WR, Hochwald SN, Pisters PW, Fong Y, Blumgart LH. Hilar cholangiocarcinoma: patterns of spread, the importance of hepatic resection for curative operation, and a presurgical clinical staging system. Ann Surg 1998; 228: 385394.
  • 105
    Pichlmayr R, Weimann A, Klempnauer J, Oldhafer KJ, Maschek H, Tusch G, et al. Surgical treatment in proximal bile duct cancer. A single-center experience. Ann Surg 1996; 224: 628638.
  • 106
    Klempnauer J, Ridder GJ, von Wasielewski R, Werner M, Weimann A, Pichlmayr R. Resectional surgery of hilar cholangiocarcinoma: a multivariate analysis of prognostic factors. J Clin Oncol 1997; 15: 947954.
  • 107
    Jarnagin WR, Fong Y, DeMatteo RP, Gonen M, Burke EC, Bodniewicz BJ, et al. Staging, resectability, and outcome in 225 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Ann Surg 2001; 234: 507517 [discussion: 517–509].
  • 108
    Casavilla FA, Marsh JW, Iwatsuki S, Todo S, Lee RG, Madariaga JR, et al. Hepatic resection and transplantation for peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. J Am Coll Surg 1997; 185: 429436.
  • 109
    Lieser MJ, Barry MK, Rowland C, Ilstrup DM, Nagorney DM. Surgical management of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: a 31-year experience. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 1998; 5: 4147.
  • 110
    Madariaga JR, Iwatsuki S, Todo S, Lee RG, Irish W, Starzl TE. Liver resection for hilar and peripheral cholangiocarcinomas: a study of 62 cases. Ann Surg 1998; 227: 7079.
  • 111
    Ohtsuka M, Ito H, Kimura F, Shimizu H, Togawa A, Yoshidome H, et al. Results of surgical treatment for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and clinicopathological factors influencing survival. Br J Surg 2002; 89: 15251531.
  • 112
    Isaji S, Kawarada Y, Taoka H, Tabata M, Suzuki H, Yokoi H. Clinicopathological features and outcome of hepatic resection for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in Japan. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 1999; 6: 108116.
  • 113
    Valverde A, Bonhomme N, Farges O, Sauvanet A, Flejou JF, Belghiti J. Resection of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: a Western experience. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 1999; 6: 122127.
  • 114
    Nakeeb A, Pitt HA, Sohn TA, Coleman J, Abrams RA, Piantadosi S, et al. Cholangiocarcinoma. A spectrum of intrahepatic, perihilar, and distal tumors. Ann Surg 1996; 224: 463473 [discussion: 473–465].
  • 115
    Nathan H, Pawlik TM, Wolfgang CL, Choti MA, Cameron JL, Schulick RD. Trends in survival after surgery for cholangiocarcinoma: a 30-year population-based SEER database analysis. J Gastrointest Surg 2007; 11: 14881496 [discussion: 1496–1487].
  • 116
    Jarnagin WR, Shoup M. Surgical management of cholangiocarcinoma. Semin Liver Dis 2004; 24: 189199.
  • 117
    Patel T. Cholangiocarcinoma. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 3: 3342.
  • 118
    Nagorney DM, Kendrick ML. Hepatic resection in the treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Adv Surg 2006; 40: 159171.
  • 119
    DeOliveira ML, Cunningham SC, Cameron JL, Kamangar F, Winter JM, Lillemoe KD, et al. Cholangiocarcinoma: thirty-one-year experience with 564 patients at a single institution. Ann Surg 2007; 245: 755762.
  • 120
    Neuhaus P, Jonas S, Bechstein WO, Lohmann R, Radke C, Kling N, et al. Extended resections for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Ann Surg 1999; 230: 808818 [discussion: 819].
  • 121
    Kawarada Y, Das BC, Naganuma T, Tabata M, Taoka H. Surgical treatment of hilar bile duct carcinoma: experience with 25 consecutive hepatectomies. J Gastrointest Surg 2002; 6: 617624.
  • 122
    Hemming AW, Reed AI, Fujita S, Foley DP, Howard RJ. Surgical management of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Ann Surg 2005; 241: 693699 [discussion: 699–702].
  • 123
    Gazzaniga GM, Filauro M, Bagarolo C, Mori L. Surgery for hilar cholangiocarcinoma: an Italian experience. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2000; 7: 122127.
  • 124
    Abdalla EK, Barnett CC, Doherty D, Curley SA, Vauthey JN. Extended hepatectomy in patients with hepatobiliary malignancies with and without preoperative portal vein embolization. Arch Surg 2002; 137: 675680 [discussion: 680–671].
  • 125
    Makuuchi M, Thai BL, Takayasu K, Takayama T, Kosuge T, Gunven P, et al. Preoperative portal embolization to increase safety of major hepatectomy for hilar bile duct carcinoma: a preliminary report. Surgery 1990; 107: 521527.
  • 126
    Nagino M, Kamiya J, Nishio H, Ebata T, Arai T, Nimura Y. Two hundred forty consecutive portal vein embolizations before extended hepatectomy for biliary cancer: surgical outcome and long-term follow-up. Ann Surg 2006; 243: 364372.
  • 127
    McMasters KM, Tuttle TM, Leach SD, Rich T, Cleary KR, Evans DB, et al. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Am J Surg 1997; 174: 605608 [discussion: 608–609].
  • 128
    Wiedmann M, Caca K, Berr F, Schiefke I, Tannapfel A, Wittekind C, et al. Neoadjuvant photodynamic therapy as a new approach to treating hilar cholangiocarcinoma: a phase II pilot study. Cancer 2003; 97: 27832790.
  • 129
    Pascher A, Jonas S, Neuhaus P. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: indication for transplantation. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2003; 10: 282287.
  • 130
    O'Grady JG, Polson RJ, Rolles K, Calne RY, Williams R. Liver transplantation for malignant disease. Results in 93 consecutive patients. Ann Surg 1988; 207: 373379.
  • 131
    Pichlmayr R, Weimann A, Oldhafer KJ, Schlitt HJ, Klempnauer J, Bornscheuer A, et al. Role of liver transplantation in the treatment of unresectable liver cancer. World J Surg 1995; 19: 807813.
  • 132
    Weimann A, Varnholt H, Schlitt HJ, Lang H, Flemming P, Hustedt C, et al. Retrospective analysis of prognostic factors after liver resection and transplantation for cholangiocellular carcinoma. Br J Surg 2000; 87: 11821187.
  • 133
    Meyer CG, Penn I, James L. Liver transplantation for cholangiocarcinoma: results in 207 patients. Transplantation 2000; 69: 16331637.
  • 134
    Iwatsuki S, Todo S, Marsh JW, Madariaga JR, Lee RG, Dvorchik I, et al. Treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumors) with hepatic resection or transplantation. J Am Coll Surg 1998; 187: 358364.
  • 135
    De Vreede I, Steers JL, Burch PA, Rosen CB, Gunderson LL, Haddock MG, et al. Prolonged disease-free survival after orthotopic liver transplantation plus adjuvant chemoirradiation for cholangiocarcinoma. Liver Transpl 2000; 6: 309316.
  • 136
    Sudan D, DeRoover A, Chinnakotla S, Fox I, Shaw B Jr, McCashland T, et al. Radiochemotherapy and transplantation allow long-term survival for nonresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Am J Transplant 2002; 2: 774779.
  • 137
    Rea DJ, Heimbach JK, Rosen CB, Haddock MG, Alberts SR, Kremers WK, et al. Liver transplantation with neoadjuvant chemoradiation is more effective than resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Ann Surg 2005; 242: 451458 [discussion: 458–461].
  • 138
    Heimbach JK, Gores GJ, Haddock MG, Alberts SR, Pedersen R, Kremers W, et al. Predictors of disease recurrence following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and liver transplantation for unresectable perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. Transplantation 2006; 82: 17031707.
  • 139
    Heimbach JK, Gores GJ, Haddock MG, Alberts SR, Nyberg SL, Ishitani MB, et al. Liver transplantation for unresectable perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. Semin Liver Dis 2004; 24: 201207.
  • 140
    Gores GJ, Nagorney DM, Rosen CB. Cholangiocarcinoma: is transplantation an option? For whom? J Hepatol 2007; 47: 455459.
  • 141
    Shepherd HA, Royle G, Ross AP, Diba A, Arthur M, Colin-Jones D. Endoscopic biliary endoprosthesis in the palliation of malignant obstruction of the distal common bile duct: a randomized trial. Br J Surg 1988; 75: 11661168.
  • 142
    Andersen JR, Sorensen SM, Kruse A, Rokkjaer M, Matzen P. Randomised trial of endoscopic endoprosthesis versus operative bypass in malignant obstructive jaundice. Gut 1989; 30: 11321135.
  • 143
    Smith AC, Dowsett JF, Russell RC, Hatfield AR, Cotton PB. Randomised trial of endoscopic stenting versus surgical bypass in malignant low bileduct obstruction. Lancet 1994; 344: 16551660.
  • 144
    De Palma GD, Galloro G, Siciliano S, Iovino P, Catanzano C. Unilateral versus bilateral endoscopic hepatic duct drainage in patients with malignant hilar biliary obstruction: results of a prospective, randomized, and controlled study. Gastrointest Endosc 2001; 53: 547553.
  • 145
    Abu-Hamda EM, Baron TH. Endoscopic management of cholangiocarcinoma. Semin Liver Dis 2004; 24: 165175.
  • 146
    Kaassis M, Boyer J, Dumas R, Ponchon T, Coumaros D, Delcenserie R, et al. Plastic or metal stents for malignant stricture of the common bile duct? Results of a randomized prospective study. Gastrointest Endosc 2003; 57: 178182.
  • 147
    Czito BG, Anscher MS, Willett CG. Radiation therapy in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. Oncology (Williston Park) 2006; 20: 873884 [discussion: 886–878, 893–875].
  • 148
    Foo ML, Gunderson LL, Bender CE, Buskirk SJ. External radiation therapy and transcatheter iridium in the treatment of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1997; 39: 929935.
  • 149
    Pitt HA, Nakeeb A, Abrams RA, Coleman J, Piantadosi S, Yeo CJ, et al. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. Postoperative radiotherapy does not improve survival. Ann Surg 1995; 221: 788797 [discussion: 797–788].
  • 150
    Grove MK, Hermann RE, Vogt DP, Broughan TA. Role of radiation after operative palliation in cancer of the proximal bile ducts. Am J Surg 1991; 161: 454458.
  • 151
    Krammer B. Vascular effects of photodynamic therapy. Anticancer Res 2001; 21: 42714277.
  • 152
    Korbelik M, Dougherty GJ. Photodynamic therapy-mediated immune response against subcutaneous mouse tumors. Cancer Res 1999; 59: 19411946.
  • 153
    Abels C. Targeting of the vascular system of solid tumours by photodynamic therapy (PDT). Photochem Photobiol Sci 2004; 3: 765771.
  • 154
    Ortner MA, Dorta G. Technology insight: photodynamic therapy for cholangiocarcinoma. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 3: 459467.
  • 155
    Ortner MA, Liebetruth J, Schreiber S, Hanft M, Wruck U, Fusco V, et al. Photodynamic therapy of nonresectable cholangiocarcinoma. Gastroenterology 1998; 114: 536542.
  • 156
    Berr F, Wiedmann M, Tannapfel A, Halm U, Kohlhaw KR, Schmidt F, et al. Photodynamic therapy for advanced bile duct cancer: evidence for improved palliation and extended survival. HEPATOLOGY 2000; 31: 291298.
  • 157
    Ortner ME, Caca K, Berr F, Liebetruth J, Mansmann U, Huster D, et al. Successful photodynamic therapy for nonresectable cholangiocarcinoma: a randomized prospective study. Gastroenterology 2003; 125: 13551363.
  • 158
    Rumalla A, Baron TH, Wang KK, Gores GJ, Stadheim LM, de Groen PC. Endoscopic application of photodynamic therapy for cholangiocarcinoma. Gastrointest Endosc 2001; 53: 500504.
  • 159
    Shim CS, Cheon YK, Cha SW, Bhandari S, Moon JH, Cho YD, et al. Prospective study of the effectiveness of percutaneous transhepatic photodynamic therapy for advanced bile duct cancer and the role of intraductal ultrasonography in response assessment. Endoscopy 2005; 37: 425433.
  • 160
    Harewood GC, Baron TH, Rumalla A, Wang KK, Gores GJ, Stadheim LM, et al. Pilot study to assess patient outcomes following endoscopic application of photodynamic therapy for advanced cholangiocarcinoma. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005; 20: 415420.
  • 161
    Dumoulin FL, Gerhardt T, Fuchs S, Scheurlen C, Neubrand M, Layer G, et al. Phase II study of photodynamic therapy and metal stent as palliative treatment for nonresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Gastrointest Endosc 2003; 57: 860867.
  • 162
    Zoepf T, Jakobs R, Arnold JC, Apel D, Riemann JF. Palliation of nonresectable bile duct cancer: improved survival after photodynamic therapy. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100: 24262430.
    Direct Link:
  • 163
    Berr F. Photodynamic therapy for cholangiocarcinoma. Semin Liver Dis 2004; 24: 177187.
  • 164
    Nanashima A, Yamaguchi H, Shibasaki S, Ide N, Sawai T, Tsuji T, et al. Adjuvant photodynamic therapy for bile duct carcinoma after surgery: a preliminary study. J Gastroenterol 2004; 39: 10951101.
  • 165
    Alberts SR, Gores GJ, Kim GP, Roberts LR, Kendrick ML, Rosen CB, et al. Treatment options for hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancer. Mayo Clin Proc 2007; 82: 628637.
  • 166
    Falkson G, MacIntyre JM, Moertel CG. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group experience with chemotherapy for inoperable gallbladder and bile duct cancer. Cancer 1984; 54: 965969.
  • 167
    Takada T, Kato H, Matsushiro T, Nimura Y, Nagakawa T, Nakayama T. Comparison of 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin and mitomycin C with 5-fluorouracil alone in the treatment of pancreatic-biliary carcinomas. Oncology 1994; 51: 396400.
  • 168
    Choi CW, Choi IK, Seo JH, Kim BS, Kim JS, Kim CD, et al. Effects of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in the treatment of pancreatic-biliary tract adenocarcinomas. Am J Clin Oncol 2000; 23: 425428.
  • 169
    Patt YZ, Jones DV Jr, Hoque A, Lozano R, Markowitz A, Raijman I, et al. Phase II trial of intravenous flourouracil and subcutaneous interferon alfa-2b for biliary tract cancer. J Clin Oncol 1996; 14: 23112315.
  • 170
    Patt YZ, Hassan MM, Lozano RD, Waugh KA, Hoque AM, Frome AI, et al. Phase II trial of cisplatin, interferon alpha-2b, doxorubicin, and 5-fluorouracil for biliary tract cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2001; 7: 33753380.
  • 171
    Ducreux M, Rougier P, Fandi A, Clavero-Fabri MC, Villing AL, Fassone F, et al. Effective treatment of advanced biliary tract carcinoma using 5-fluorouracil continuous infusion with cisplatin. Ann Oncol 1998; 9: 653656.
  • 172
    Lee MA, Woo IS, Kang JH, Hong YS, Lee KS. Epirubicin, cisplatin, and protracted infusion of 5-FU (ECF) in advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2004; 130: 346350.
  • 173
    Taieb J, Mitry E, Boige V, Artru P, Ezenfis J, Lecomte T, et al. Optimization of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/cisplatin combination chemotherapy with a new schedule of leucovorin, 5-FU and cisplatin (LV5FU2-P regimen) in patients with biliary tract carcinoma. Ann Oncol 2002; 13: 11921196.
  • 174
    Raderer M, Hejna MH, Valencak JB, Kornek GV, Weinlander GS, Bareck E, et al. Two consecutive phase II studies of 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/mitomycin C and of gemcitabine in patients with advanced biliary cancer. Oncology 1999; 56: 177180.
  • 175
    Jones DV Jr, Lozano R, Hoque A, Markowitz A, Patt YZ. Phase II study of paclitaxel therapy for unresectable biliary tree carcinomas. J Clin Oncol 1996; 14: 23062310.
  • 176
    Kiba T, Nishimura T, Matsumoto S, Hatano E, Mori A, Yasumi S, et al. Single-agent gemcitabine for biliary tract cancers. Study outcomes and systematic review of the literature. Oncology 2006; 70: 358365.
  • 177
    Scheithauer W. Review of gemcitabine in biliary tract carcinoma. Semin Oncol 2002; 29: 4045.
  • 178
    Escudier B, Eisen T, Stadler WM, Szczylik C, Oudard S, Siebels M, et al. Sorafenib in advanced clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma. N Engl J Med 2007; 356: 125134.
  • 179
    Yu C, Bruzek LM, Meng XW, Gores GJ, Carter CA, Kaufmann SH, et al. The role of Mcl-1 downregulation in the proapoptotic activity of the multikinase inhibitor BAY 43-9006. Oncogene 2005; 24: 68616869.
  • 180
    Mott JL, Kobayashi S, Bronk SF, Gores GJ. mir-29 regulates Mcl-1 protein expression and apoptosis. Oncogene 2007; 26: 61336140.
  • 181
    Nguyen M, Marcellus RC, Roulston A, Watson M, Serfass L, Murthy Madiraju SR, et al. Small molecule obatoclax (GX15–070) antagonizes MCL-1 and overcomes MCL-1-mediated resistance to apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007; 104: 1951219517.
  • 182
    Ishimura N, Bronk SF, Gores GJ. Inducible nitric oxide synthase up-regulates Notch-1 in mouse cholangiocytes: implications for carcinogenesis. Gastroenterology 2005; 128: 13541368.
  • 183
    Jimeno A, Rubio-Viqueira B, Amador ML, Oppenheimer D, Bouraoud N, Kulesza P, et al. Epidermal growth factor receptor dynamics influences response to epidermal growth factor receptor targeted agents. Cancer Res 2005; 65: 30033010.
  • 184
    Wiedmann M, Feisthammel J, Bluthner T, Tannapfel A, Kamenz T, Kluge A, et al. Novel targeted approaches to treating biliary tract cancer: the dual epidermal growth factor receptor and ErbB-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor NVP-AEE788 is more efficient than the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib. Anticancer Drugs 2006; 17: 783795.
  • 185
    Zhang Z, Lai GH, Sirica AE. Celecoxib-induced apoptosis in rat cholangiocarcinoma cells mediated by Akt inactivation and Bax translocation. HEPATOLOGY 2004; 39: 10281037.
  • 186
    Wu T, Leng J, Han C, Demetris AJ. The cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib blocks phosphorylation of Akt and induces apoptosis in human cholangiocarcinoma cells. Mol Cancer Ther 2004; 3: 299307.
  • 187
    Date K, Matsumoto K, Kuba K, Shimura H, Tanaka M, Nakamura T. Inhibition of tumor growth and invasion by a four-kringle antagonist (HGF/NK4) for hepatocyte growth factor. Oncogene 1998; 17: 30453054.
  • 188
    Sirica AE, Lai GH, Endo K, Zhang Z, Yoon BI. Cyclooxygenase-2 and ERBB-2 in cholangiocarcinoma: potential therapeutic targets. Semin Liver Dis 2002; 22: 303313.
  • 189
    Katayose Y, Kudo T, Suzuki M, Shinoda M, Saijyo S, Sakurai N, et al. MUC1-specific targeting immunotherapy with bispecific antibodies: inhibition of xenografted human bile duct carcinoma growth. Cancer Res 1996; 56: 42054212.
  • 190
    Ahn EY, Pan G, Vickers SM, McDonald JM. IFN-gammaupregulates apoptosis-related molecules and enhances Fas-mediated apoptosis in human cholangiocarcinoma. Int J Cancer 2002; 100: 445451.
  • 191
    Tanaka S, Sugimachi K, Shirabe K, Shimada M, Wands JR. Expression and antitumor effects of TRAIL in human cholangiocarcinoma. HEPATOLOGY 2000; 32: 523527.
  • 192
    Thamavit W, Pairojkul C, Tiwawech D, Itoh M, Shirai T, Ito N. Promotion of cholangiocarcinogenesis in the hamster liver by bile duct ligation after dimethylnitrosamine initiation. Carcinogenesis 1993; 14: 24152417.
  • 193
    Imray CH, Newbold KM, Davis A, Lavelle-Jones M, Neoptolemos JP. Induction of cholangiocarcinoma in the Golden Syrian hamster using methylazoxymethyl acetate. Eur J Surg Oncol 1992; 18: 373378.
  • 194
    Radaeva S, Ferreira-Gonzalez A, Sirica AE. Overexpression of C-NEU and C-MET during rat liver cholangiocarcinogenesis: A link between biliary intestinal metaplasia and mucin-producing cholangiocarcinoma. HEPATOLOGY 1999; 29: 14531462.
  • 195
    Xu X, Kobayashi S, Qiao W, Li C, Xiao C, Radaeva S, et al. Induction of intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma by liver-specific disruption of Smad4 and Pten in mice. J Clin Invest 2006; 116: 18431852.
  • 196
    Fava G, Marucci L, Glaser S, Francis H, De Morrow S, Benedetti A, et al. gamma-Aminobutyric acid inhibits cholangiocarcinoma growth by cyclic AMP-dependent regulation of the protein kinase A/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway. Cancer Res 2005; 65: 1143711446.
  • 197
    Marienfeld C, Tadlock L, Yamagiwa Y, Patel T. Inhibition of cholangiocarcinoma growth by tannic acid. HEPATOLOGY 2003; 37: 10971104.
  • 198
    Johnson JI, Decker S, Zaharevitz D, Rubinstein LV, Venditti JM, Schepartz S, et al. Relationships between drug activity in NCI preclinical in vitro and in vivo models and early clinical trials. Br J Cancer 2001; 84: 14241431.
  • 199
    Voskoglou-Nomikos T, Pater JL, Seymour L. Clinical predictive value of the in vitro cell line, human xenograft, and mouse allograft preclinical cancer models. Clin Cancer Res 2003; 9: 42274239.
  • 200
    Sausville EA, Burger AM. Contributions of human tumor xenografts to anticancer drug development. Cancer Res 2006; 66: 33513354 [discussion: 3354].
  • 201
    Bibby MC. Orthotopic models of cancer for preclinical drug evaluation: advantages and disadvantages. Eur J Cancer 2004; 40: 852857.
  • 202
    Maronpot RR, Giles HD, Dykes DJ, Irwin RD. Furan-induced hepatic cholangiocarcinomas in Fischer 344 rats. Toxicol Pathol 1991; 19: 561570.
  • 203
    Jan YY, Yeh TS, Yeh JN, Yang HR, Chen MF. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor, apomucins, matrix metalloproteinases, and p53 in rat and human cholangiocarcinoma: appraisal of an animal model of cholangiocarcinoma. Ann Surg 2004; 240: 8994.
  • 204
    Yeh CN, Maitra A, Lee KF, Jan YY, Chen MF. Thioacetamide-induced intestinal-type cholangiocarcinoma in rat: an animal model recapitulating the multi-stage progression of human cholangiocarcinoma. Carcinogenesis 2004; 25: 631636.
  • 205
    Farazi PA, Zeisberg M, Glickman J, Zhang Y, Kalluri R, DePinho RA. Chronic bile duct injury associated with fibrotic matrix microenvironment provokes cholangiocarcinoma in p53-deficient mice. Cancer Res 2006; 66: 66226627.
  • 206
    Sirica AE, Zhang Z, Lai GH, Asano T, Shen XN, Ward DJ, et al. A novel “patient-like” model of cholangiocarcinoma progression based on bile duct inoculation of tumorigenic rat cholangiocyte cell lines. HEPATOLOGY 2008; 47: 11781190.
  • 207
    Nakajima T, Takayama T, Miyanishi K, Nobuoka A, Hayashi T, Abe T, et al. Reversal of multiple drug resistance in cholangiocarcinoma by the glutathione S-transferase-pi-specific inhibitor O1-hexadecyl-gamma-glutamyl-S-benzylcysteinyl-D-phenylglycine ethylester. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003; 306: 861869.
  • 208
    ClinicalTrials.gov. List results for search of “cholangiocarcinoma”. Available at: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=cholangiocarcinoma. Accessed January, 2008.
  • 209
    Ricci MS, Kim SH, Ogi K, Plastaras JP, Ling J, Wang W, et al. Reduction of TRAIL-induced Mcl-1 and cIAP2 by c-Myc or sorafenib sensitizes resistant human cancer cells to TRAIL-induced death. Cancer Cell 2007; 12: 6680.