• 1
    Arad Y, Newstein D, Cadet F, Roth M, Guerci AD. Association of multiple risk factors and insulin resistance with increased prevalence of asymptomatic coronary artery disease by an electron-beam computed tomographic study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001; 21: 20512058.
  • 2
    Laakso M, Lehto S. Epidemiology of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. Atherosclerosis 1998; 137 (Suppl): S65S73.
  • 3
    Fujimoto WY, Bergstrom RW, Boyko EJ, Chen KW, Leonetti DL, Newell-Morris L, et al. Visceral adiposity and incident coronary heart disease in Japanese-American men. The 10-year follow-up results of the Seattle Japanese-American Community Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 1999; 22: 18081812.
  • 4
    Tayama K, Inukai T, Shimomura Y. Preperitoneal fat deposition estimated by ultrasonography in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1999; 43: 4958.
  • 5
    Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J. The metabolic syndrome—a new worldwide definition. Lancet 2005; 366: 10591062.
  • 6
    Browning JD, Horton JD. Molecular mediators of hepatic steatosis and liver injury. J Clin Invest 2004; 114: 147152.
  • 7
    Bruun JM, Pedersen SB, Richelsen B. Regulation of interleukin 8 production and gene expression in human adipose tissue in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86: 12671273.
  • 8
    Gerhardt CC, Romero IA, Cancello R, Camoin L, Strosberg AD. Chemokines control fat accumulation and leptin secretion by cultured human adipocytes. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2001; 175: 8192.
  • 9
    Sartipy P, Loskutoff DJ. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in obesity and insulin resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003; 100: 72657270.
  • 10
    Cancello R, Tordjman J, Poitou C, Guilhem G, Bouillot JL, Hugol D, et al. Increased infiltration of macrophages in omental adipose tissue is associated with marked hepatic lesions in morbid human obesity. Diabetes 2006; 55: 15541561.
  • 11
    Henrichot E, Juge-Aubry CE, Pernin A, Pache JC, Velebit V, Dayer JM, et al. Production of chemokines by perivascular adipose tissue: a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2005; 25: 25942599.
  • 12
    Mai G, Nguyen TH, Morel P, Mei J, Andres A, Bosco D, et al. Treatment of fulminant liver failure by transplantation of microencapsulated primary or immortalized xenogeneic hepatocytes. Xenotransplantation 2005; 12: 457464.
  • 13
    Dranoff JA, Ogawa M, Kruglov EA, Gaça MD, Sévigny J, Robson SC, et al. Expression of P2Y nucleotide receptors and ectonucleotidases in quiescent and activated rat hepatic stellate cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2004; 287: G417G424.
  • 14
    Berge K, Tronstad KJ, Bohov P, Madsen L, Berge RK. Impact of mitochondrial beta-oxidation in fatty acid-mediated inhibition of glioma cell proliferation. J Lipid Res 2003; 44: 118127.
  • 15
    Matsuda Y, Matsumoto K, Yamada A, Ichida T, Asakura H, Komoriya Y, et al. Preventive and therapeutic effects in rats of hepatocyte growth factor infusion on liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. HEPATOLOGY 1997; 26: 8189.
  • 16
    Mendez-Sanchez N, Chavez-Tapia NC, Villa AR, Sanchez-Lara K, Zamora-Valdes D, Ramos MH, et al. Adiponectin as a protective factor in hepatic steatosis. World J Gastroenterol 2005; 11: 17371741.
  • 17
    Shimabukuro M, Koyama K, Chen G, Wang MY, Trieu F, Lee Y, et al. Direct antidiabetic effect of leptin through triglyceride depletion of tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1997; 94: 46374641.
  • 18
    Marra F, Romanelli RG, Giannini C, Failli P, Pastacaldi S, Arrighi MC, et al. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 as a chemoattractant for human hepatic stellate cells. HEPATOLOGY 1999; 29: 140148.
  • 19
    Glennon MC, Bird GS, Kwan CY, Putney JW Jr. Actions of vasopressin and the Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor, thapsigargin, on Ca2+ signaling in hepatocytes. J Biol Chem 1992; 267: 82308233.
  • 20
    Reape TJ, Groot PH. Chemokines and atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 1999; 147: 213225.
  • 21
    Tsai J, Qiu W, Kohen-Avramoglu R, Adeli K. MEK-ERK inhibition corrects the defect in VLDL assembly in HepG2 cells: potential role of ERK in VLDL-ApoB100 particle assembly. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2007; 27: 211218.
  • 22
    Schecter AD, Berman AB, Yi L, Ma H, Daly CM, Soejima K, et al. MCP-1-dependent signaling in CCR2(−//−) aortic smooth muscle cells. J Leukoc Biol 2004; 75: 10791085.
  • 23
    Ashida N, Arai H, Yamasaki M, Kita T. Distinct signaling pathways for MCP-1-dependent integrin activation and chemotaxis. J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 1655516560.
  • 24
    Franckhauser S, Munoz S, Pujol A, Casellas A, Riu E, Otaegui P, et al. Increased fatty acid re-esterification by PEPCK overexpression in adipose tissue leads to obesity without insulin resistance. Diabetes 2002; 51: 624630.
  • 25
    Routes JM, Colton LA, Ryan S, Klemm DJ. CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) and C/EBPalpha (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein) are required for the superstimulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene transcription by adenoviral E1a and cAMP. Biochem J 2000; 352(Pt 2): 335342.
  • 26
    Yoshimura T, Leonard EJ. Identification of high affinity receptors for human monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 on human monocytes. J Immunol 1990; 145: 292297.
  • 27
    Yoshimura T, Yuhki N, Moore SK, Appella E, Lerman MI, Leonard EJ. Human monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Full-length cDNA cloning, expression in mitogen-stimulated blood mononuclear leukocytes, and sequence similarity to mouse competence gene JE. FEBS Lett 1989; 244: 487493.
  • 28
    MacDermott RP. Chemokines in the inflammatory bowel diseases. J Clin Immunol 1999; 19: 266272.
  • 29
    Ying S, Meng Q, Zeibecoglou K, Robinson DS, Macfarlane A, Humbert M, et al. Eosinophil chemotactic chemokines (eotaxin, eotaxin-2, RANTES, monocyte chemoattractant protein-3 (MCP-3), and MCP-4), and C-C chemokine receptor 3 expression in bronchial biopsies from atopic and nonatopic (Intrinsic) asthmatics. J Immunol 1999; 163: 63216329.
  • 30
    Chacon MR, Fernandez-Real JM, Richart C, Megí A, Gómez JM, Miranda M, et al. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Insulin sensitivity study. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007; 15: 664672.
  • 31
    Kanda H, Tateya S, Tamori Y, Kotani K, Hiasa K, Kitazawa R, et al. MCP-1 contributes to macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in obesity. J Clin Invest 2006; 116: 14941505.
  • 32
    Charo IF, Myers SJ, Herman A, Franci C, Connolly AJ, Coughlin SR. Molecular cloning and functional expression of two monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 receptors reveals alternative splicing of the carboxyl-terminal tails. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994; 91: 27522756.
  • 33
    Heesen M, Tanabe S, Berman MA, Yoshizawa I, Luo Y, Kim RJ, et al. Mouse astrocytes respond to the chemokines MCP-1 and KC, but reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction does not detect mRNA for the KC or new MCP-1 receptor. J Neurosci Res 1996; 45: 382391.
  • 34
    Yen H, Zhang Y, Penfold S, Rollins BJ. MCP-1-mediated chemotaxis requires activation of non-overlapping signal transduction pathways. J Leukoc Biol 1997; 61: 529532.
  • 35
    Reshef L, Olswang Y, Cassuto H, Blum B, Croniger CM, Kalhan SC, et al. Glyceroneogenesis and the triglyceride/fatty acid cycle. J Biol Chem 2003; 278: 3041330416.
  • 36
    Cadoudal T, Leroyer S, Reis AF, Tordjman J, Durant S, Fouque F, et al. Proposed involvement of adipocyte glyceroneogenesis and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in the metabolic syndrome. Biochimie 2005; 87: 2732.
  • 37
    Botion LM, Brito MN, Brito NA, Brito SR, Kettelhut IC, Migliorini RH. Glucose contribution to in vivo synthesis of glyceride-glycerol and fatty acids in rats adapted to a high-protein, carbohydrate-free diet. Metabolism 1998; 47: 12171221.
  • 38
    Kalhan SC, Mahajan S, Burkett E, Reshef L, Hanson RW. Glyceroneogenesis and the source of glycerol for hepatic triacylglycerol synthesis in humans. J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 1292812931.
  • 39
    Short MK, Clouthier DE, Schaefer IM, Hammer RE, Magnuson MA, Beale EG. Tissue-specific, developmental, hormonal, and dietary regulation of rat phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-human growth hormone fusion genes in transgenic mice. Mol Cell Biol 1992; 12: 10071020.
  • 40
    Park EA, Roesler WJ, Liu J, Klemm DJ, Gurney AL, Thatcher JD, et al. The role of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein in the transcriptional regulation of the gene for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP). Mol Cell Biol 1990; 10: 62646272.
  • 41
    Park EA, Gurney AL, Nizielski SE, Hakimi P, Cao Z, Moorman A, et al. Relative roles of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta and cAMP regulatory element-binding protein in controlling transcription of the gene for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP). J Biol Chem 1993; 268: 613619.
  • 42
    Yanuka-Kashles O, Cohen H, Trus M, Aran A, Benvenisty N, Reshef L. Transcriptional regulation of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene by cooperation between hepatic nuclear factors. Mol Cell Biol 1994; 14: 71247133.
  • 43
    Wadzinski BE, Wheat WH, Jaspers S, Peruski LF Jr, Lickteig RL, Johnson GL, et al. Nuclear protein phosphatase 2A dephosphorylates protein kinase A-phosphorylated CREB and regulates CREB transcriptional stimulation. Mol Cell Biol 1993; 13: 28222834.
  • 44
    Roesler WJ, Graham JG, Kolen R, Klemm DJ, McFie PJ. The cAMP response element binding protein synergizes with other transcription factors to mediate cAMP responsiveness. J Biol Chem 1995; 270: 82258232.
  • 45
    Chakravarty K, Cassuto H, Reshef L, Hanson RW. Factors that control the tissue-specific transcription of the gene for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-C. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2005; 40: 129154.
  • 46
    McLean KA, Holst PJ, Martini L, Schwartz TW, Rosenkilde MM. Similar activation of signal transduction pathways by the herpesvirus-encoded chemokine receptors US28 and ORF74. Virology 2004; 325: 241251.