• 1
    Lauer GM, Walker BD. Hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 4152.
  • 2
    Hadziyannis SJ, Sette H Jr, Morgan TR, Balan V, Diago M, Marcellin P, et al. Peginterferon-alpha2a and ribavirin combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C: a randomized study of treatment duration and ribavirin dose. Ann Intern Med 2004; 140: 346355.
  • 3
    Lutchman G, Danehower S, Song BC, Liang TJ, Hoofnagle JH, Thomson M, et al. Mutation rate of the hepatitis C virus NS5B in patients undergoing treatment with ribavirin monotherapy. Gastroenterology 2007; 132: 17571766.
  • 4
    Young KC, Lindsay KL, Lee KJ, Liu WC, He JW, Milstein SL, et al. Identification of a ribavirin-resistant NS5B mutation of hepatitis C virus during ribavirin monotherapy. HEPATOLOGY 2003; 38: 869878.
  • 5
    Pfeiffer JK, Kirkegaard K. Ribavirin resistance in hepatitis C virus replicon-containing cell lines conferred by changes in the cell line or mutations in the replicon RNA. J Virol 2005; 79: 23462355.
  • 6
    Wohnsland A, Hofmann WP, Sarrazin C. Viral determinants of resistance to treatment in patients with hepatitis C. Clin Microbiol Rev 2007; 20: 2338.
  • 7
    Yang W, Zhao Y, Fabrycki J, Hou X, Nie X, Sanchez A, et al. Selection of replicon variants resistant to ACH-806, a novel hepatitis C virus inhibitor with no cross-resistance to NS3 protease and NS5B polymerase inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008; 52: 20432052.
  • 8
    Cholongitas E, Papatheodoridis GV. Novel therapeutic options for chronic hepatitis C. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2008; 27: 866884.
  • 9
    Cubero M, Esteban JI, Otero T, Sauleda S, Bes M, Esteban R, et al. Naturally occurring NS3-protease-inhibitor resistant mutant A156T in the liver of an untreated chronic hepatitis C patient. Virology 2008; 370: 237245.
  • 10
    Lu L, Mo H, Pilot-Matias TJ, Molla A. Evolution of resistant M414T mutants among hepatitis C virus replicon cells treated with polymerase inhibitor A-782759. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2007; 51: 18891896.
  • 11
    Kieffer TL, Sarrazin C, Miller JS, Welker MW, Forestier N, Reesink HW, et al. Telaprevir and pegylated interferon-alpha-2a inhibit wild-type and resistant genotype 1 hepatitis C virus replication in patients. HEPATOLOGY 2007; 46: 631639.
  • 12
    Sarrazin C, Kieffer TL, Bartels D, Hanzelka B, Muh U, Welker M, et al. Dynamic hepatitis C virus genotypic and phenotypic changes in patients treated with the protease inhibitor telaprevir. Gastroenterology 2007; 132: 17671777.
  • 13
    He Y, King MS, Kempf DJ, Lu L, Lim HB, Krishnan P, et al. Relative replication capacity and selective advantage profiles of PI-resistant HCV NS3 protease mutants in the HCV genotype 1b replicon system. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2007; 52: 11011110.
  • 14
    Lu L, Pilot-Matias TJ, Stewart KD, Randolph JT, Pithawalla R, He W, et al. Mutations conferring resistance to a potent hepatitis C virus serine protease inhibitor in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004; 48: 22602266.
  • 15
    Ludmerer SW, Graham DJ, Boots E, Murray EM, Simcoe A, Markel EJ, et al. Replication fitness and NS5B drug sensitivity of diverse hepatitis C virus isolates characterized by using a transient replication assay. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2005; 49: 20592069.
  • 16
    Mo H, Lu L, Pilot-Matias T, Pithawalla R, Mondal R, Masse S, et al. Mutations conferring resistance to a hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor alone or in combination with an HCV serine protease inhibitor in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2005; 49: 43054314.
  • 17
    Tong X, Chase R, Skelton A, Chen T, Wright-Minogue J, Malcolm BA. Identification and analysis of fitness of resistance mutations against the HCV protease inhibitor SCH 503034. Antiviral Res 2006; 70: 2838.
  • 18
    Yi M, Tong X, Skelton A, Chase R, Chen T, Prongay A, et al. Mutations conferring resistance to SCH6, a novel hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease inhibitor. Reduced RNA replication fitness and partial rescue by second-site mutations. J Biol Chem 2006; 281: 82058215.
  • 19
    Zhou Y, Bartels DJ, Hanzelka BL, Muh U, Wei Y, Chu HM, et al. Phenotypic characterization of resistant Val36 variants of hepatitis C virus NS3–4A serine protease. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008; 52: 110120.
  • 20
    Colson P, Brouk N, Lembo F, Castellani P, Tamalet C, Gerolami R. Natural presence of substitution R155K within hepatitis C virus NS3 protease from a treatment-naive chronically infected patient. HEPATOLOGY 2008; 47: 766767.
  • 21
    Bartels DJ, Zhou Y, Zhang E, Marcial M, Byrn RA, Adiwijaya B, et al. Natural prevalence of HCV variants with decreased susceptibility to NS3–4A protease inhibitors in treatment-naive subjects. J Hepatol 2008; 48( Suppl 2): S316.
  • 22
    Hilgartner MW, Donfield SM, Willoughby A, Contant CF Jr, Evatt BL, Gomperts ED, et al. Hemophilia growth and development study. Design, methods, and entry data. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1993; 15: 208218.
  • 23
    Prasad L, Spicher VM, Zwahlen M, Rickenbach M, Helbling B, Negro F. Cohort Profile: the Swiss Hepatitis C Cohort Study (SCCS). Int J Epidemiol 2007; 36: 731737.
  • 24
    Kuntzen T, Timm J, Berical A, Lewis-Ximenez LL, Jones A, Nolan B, et al. Viral sequence evolution in acute hepatitis C virus infection. J Virol 2007; 81: 1165811668.
  • 25
    Jaffe DB, Butler J, Gnerre S, Mauceli E, Lindblad-Toh K, Mesirov JP, et al. Whole-genome sequence assembly for mammalian genomes: Arachne 2. Genome Res 2003; 13: 9196.
  • 26
    Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins DG. The CLUSTAL_X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 1997; 25: 48764882.
  • 27
    Shi ST, Herlihy KJ, Graham JP, Fuhrman SA, Doan C, Parge H, et al. In vitro resistance study of AG-021541, a novel nonnucleoside inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008; 52: 675683.
  • 28
    Tong X, Bogen S, Chase R, Girijavallabhan V, Guo Z, Njoroge FG, et al. Characterization of resistance mutations against HCV ketoamide protease inhibitors. Antiviral Res 2008; 77: 177185.
  • 29
    Seiwert S. Sequence variation of NS3 and NS4A in hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicons following exposure to ITMN-191 concentrations likely to encompass those achieved in human liver following clinical dosing. In: First International Workshop in Hepatitis C Resistance and New Compounds; October 25-26, 2006; Boston, MA.
  • 30
    Kuritzkes DR. Preventing and managing antiretroviral drug resistance. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2004; 18: 259273.
  • 31
    Sax PE, Islam R, Walensky RP, Losina E, Weinstein MC, Goldie SJ, et al. Should resistance testing be performed for treatment-naive HIV-infected patients? A cost-effectiveness analysis. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 41: 13161323.
  • 32
    Hirsch MS, Brun-Vezinet F, Clotet B, Conway B, Kuritzkes DR, D'Aquila RT, et al. Antiretroviral drug resistance testing in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1: 2003 recommendations of an International AIDS Society-USA Panel. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 37: 113128.
  • 33
    Le Pogam S, Jiang WR, Leveque V, Rajyaguru S, Ma H, Kang H, et al. In vitro selected Con1 subgenomic replicons resistant to 2'-C-methyl-cytidine or to R1479 show lack of cross resistance. Virology 2006; 351: 349359.
  • 34
    Migliaccio G, Tomassini JE, Carroll SS, Tomei L, Altamura S, Bhat B, et al. Characterization of resistance to non-obligate chain-terminating ribonucleoside analogs that inhibit hepatitis C virus replication in vitro. J Biol Chem 2003; 278: 4916449170.
  • 35
    Chen CM, He Y, Lu L, Lim HB, Tripathi RL, Middleton T, et al. Activity of a potent hepatitis C virus polymerase inhibitor in the chimpanzee model. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2007; 51: 42904296.
  • 36
    McCown MF, Rajyaguru S, Le Pogam S, Ali S, Jiang WR, Kang H, et al. The HCV replicon presents a higher barrier to resistance to nucleoside analogs than to non-nucleoside polymerase or protease inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008; 52: 16041612.
  • 37
    Tomei L, Altamura S, Bartholomew L, Biroccio A, Ceccacci A, Pacini L, et al. Mechanism of action and antiviral activity of benzimidazole-based allosteric inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. J Virol 2003; 77: 1322513231.