SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Angulo P. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 12211231.
  • 2
    Clark JM, Brancati FL, Diehl AM. The prevalence and etiology of elevated aminotransferase levels in the United States. Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98: 960967.
    Direct Link:
  • 3
    Torres DM, Harrison SA. Diagnosis and therapy of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Gastroenterology 2008; 134: 16821698.
  • 4
    Fraser A, Longnecker MP, Lawlor DA. Prevalence of elevated alanine aminotransferase among US adolescents and associated factors: NHANES 1999-2004. Gastroenterology 2007; 133: 18141820.
  • 5
    Charlton M. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a review of current understanding and future impact. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004; 2: 10481058.
  • 6
    Matteoni CA, Younossi ZM, Gramlich T, Boparai N, Liu YC, McCullough AJ. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a spectrum of clinical and pathological severity. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: 14131419.
  • 7
    McCullough AJ, O'Connor JF. Alcoholic liver disease: proposed recommendations for the American College of Gastroenterology. Am J Gastroenterol 1998; 93: 20222036.
    Direct Link:
  • 8
    Coates RA, Halliday ML, Rankin JG, Feinman SV, Fisher MM. Risk of fatty infiltration or cirrhosis of the liver in relation to ethanol consumption: a case-control study. Clin Invest Med 1986; 9: 2632.
  • 9
    Ruhl CE, Everhart JE. Joint effects of body weight and alcohol on elevated serum alanine aminotransferase in the United States population. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005; 3: 12601268.
  • 10
    Dunn W, Xu R, Schwimmer JB. Modest wine drinking and decreased prevalence of suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. HEPATOLOGY 2008; 47: 19471954.
  • 11
    Conigrave KM, Degenhardt LJ, Whitfield JB, Saunders JB, Helander A, Tabakoff B. CDT, GGT, and AST as markers of alcohol use: the WHO/ISBRA collaborative project. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2002; 26: 332339.
  • 12
    Anton RF, Dominick C, Bigelow M, Westby C. Comparison of Bio-Rad %CDT TIA and CDTect as laboratory markers of heavy alcohol use and their relationships with gamma-glutamyltransferase. Clin Chem 2001; 47: 17691775.
  • 13
    Nalpas B, Vassault A, Poupon RE, Pol S, Berthelot P. An overview of serum mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (mAST) activity as a marker of chronic alcohol abuse. Alcohol Alcohol Suppl 1991; 1: 455457.
  • 14
    Dunn W, Angulo P, Sanderson S, Jamil LH, Stadheim L, Rosen C, et al. Utility of a new model to diagnose an alcohol basis for steatohepatitis. Gastroenterology 2006; 131: 10571063.
  • 15
    Cotler SJ, Kanji K, Keshavarzian A, Jensen DM, Jakate S. Prevalence and significance of autoantibodies in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol 2004; 38: 801804.
  • 16
    Cho DH, Choi MS, Kim DH, Kim DY, Shim SG, Lee JH, et al. [ A prospective study on the prevalence and clinical significance of autoantibodies in patients with suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease]. Korean J Hepatol 2005; 11: 261267.
  • 17
    Yatsuji S, Hashimoto E, Kaneda H, Taniai M, Tokushige K, Shiratori K. Diagnosing autoimmune hepatitis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: is the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group scoring system useful? J Gastroenterol 2005; 40: 11301138.
  • 18
    Loria P, Lonardo A, Leonardi F, Fontana C, Carulli L, Verrone AM, et al. Non-organ-specific autoantibodies in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: prevalence and correlates. Dig Dis Sci 2003; 48: 21732181.
  • 19
    Niwa H, Sasaki M, Haratake J, Kasai T, Katayanagi K, Kurumaya H, et al. Clinicopathological significance of antinuclear antibodies in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatol Res 2007; 37: 923931.
  • 20
    Adams LA, Lindor KD, Angulo P. The prevalence of autoantibodies and autoimmune hepatitis in patients with nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2004; 99: 13161320.
    Direct Link:
  • 21
    Bacon BR, Farahvash MJ, Janney CG, Neuschwander-Tetri BA. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: an expanded clinical entity. Gastroenterology 1994; 107: 11031109.
  • 22
    Fargion S, Mattioli M, Fracanzani AL, Sampietro M, Tavazzi D, Fociani P, et al. Hyperferritinemia, iron overload, and multiple metabolic alterations identify patients at risk for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 24482455.
    Direct Link:
  • 23
    Lin TJ, Lin CL, Wang CS, Liu SO, Liao LY. Prevalence of HFE mutations and relation to serum iron status in patients with chronic hepatitis C and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Taiwan. World J Gastroenterol 2005; 11: 39053908.
  • 24
    Chitturi S, Weltman M, Farrell GC, McDonald D, Kench J, Liddle C, et al. HFE mutations, hepatic iron, and fibrosis: ethnic-specific association of NASH with C282Y but not with fibrotic severity. HEPATOLOGY 2002; 36: 142149.
  • 25
    Angulo P, Keach JC, Batts KP, Lindor KD. Independent predictors of liver fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. HEPATOLOGY 1999; 30: 13561362.
  • 26
    Bonora E, Targher G, Alberiche M, Bonadonna RC, Saggiani F, Zenere MB, et al. Homeostasis model assessment closely mirrors the glucose clamp technique in the assessment of insulin sensitivity: studies in subjects with various degrees of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Diabetes Care 2000; 23: 5763.
  • 27
    Muniyappa R, Lee S, Chen H, Quon MJ. Current approaches for assessing insulin sensitivity and resistance in vivo: advantages, limitations, and appropriate usage. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2008; 294: E1526.
  • 28
    Stern SE, Williams K, Ferrannini E, DeFronzo RA, Bogardus C, Stern MP. Identification of individuals with insulin resistance using routine clinical measurements. Diabetes 2005; 54: 333339.
  • 29
    Yoneda M, Mawatari H, Fujita K, Iida H, Yonemitsu K, Kato S, et al. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein is an independent clinical feature of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and also of the severity of fibrosis in NASH. J Gastroenterol 2007; 42: 573582.
  • 30
    Targher G, Bertolini L, Rodella S, Lippi G, Franchini M, Zoppini G, et al. NASH predicts plasma inflammatory biomarkers independently of visceral fat in men. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008; 16: 13941399.
  • 31
    Singh H, Pollock R, Uhanova J, Kryger M, Hawkins K, Minuk GY. Symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Dig Dis Sci 2005; 50: 23382343.
  • 32
    Kallwitz ER, Herdegen J, Madura J, Jakate S, Cotler SJ. Liver enzymes and histology in obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Gastroenterol 2007; 41: 918921.
  • 33
    Adams LA, Feldstein A, Lindor KD, Angulo P. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease among patients with hypothalamic and pituitary dysfunction. HEPATOLOGY 2004; 39: 909914.
  • 34
    Liangpunsakul S, Chalasani N. Is hypothyroidism a risk factor for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis? J Clin Gastroenterol 2003; 37: 340343.
  • 35
    Cerda C, Perez-Ayuso RM, Riquelme A, Soza A, Villaseca P, Sir-Petermann T, et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Hepatol 2007; 47: 412417.
  • 36
    Setji TL, Holland ND, Sanders LL, Pereira KC, Diehl AM, Brown AJ. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91: 17411747.
  • 37
    Gambarin-Gelwan M, Kinkhabwala SV, Schiano TD, Bodian C, Yeh HC, Futterweit W. Prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007; 5: 496501.
  • 38
    Newton JL, Jones DE, Henderson E, Kane L, Wilton K, Burt AD, et al. Fatigue in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is significant and associates with inactivity and excessive daytime sleepiness but not with liver disease severity or insulin resistance. Gut 2008; 57: 807813.
  • 39
    Kheirandish-Gozal L, Sans Capdevila O, Kheirandish E, Gozal D. Elevated serum aminotransferase levels in children at risk for obstructive sleep apnea. Chest 2008; 133: 9299.
  • 40
    Tanne F, Gagnadoux F, Chazouilleres O, Fleury B, Wendum D, Lasnier E, et al. Chronic liver injury during obstructive sleep apnea. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 41: 12901296.
  • 41
    Brunt EM. Pathology of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatol Res 2005; 33: 6871.
  • 42
    de Alwis NM, Day CP. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: the mist gradually clears. J Hepatol 2008; 48 Suppl 1: S104S112.
  • 43
    Rafiq N, Bai C, Fand Y, Srishord MK, McCullough AJ, Younossi ZM. Over twenty five years of follow up for a Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Cohort. Gastroenterology 2008; 134: A754.
  • 44
    Ratziu V, Charlotte F, Heurtier A, Gombert S, Giral P, Bruckert E, et al. Sampling variability of liver biopsy in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology 2005; 128: 1898906.
  • 45
    Merriman RB, Ferrell LD, Patti MG, Weston SR, Pabst MS, Aouizerat BE, et al. Correlation of paired liver biopsies in morbidly obese patients with suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. HEPATOLOGY 2006; 44: 874880.
  • 46
    Vuppalanchi R, Unalp A, Natta MV, Cummings O, Wass J, Tonascia J, et al. Increased diagnostic yield from liver biopsy in suspected NAFLD using multiple cores and mutiple readings. Gastroenterology 2007; 132: A809.
  • 47
    Kleiner DE, Brunt EM, Van Natta M, Behling C, Contos MJ, Cummings OW, et al. Design and validation of a histological scoring system for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 41: 13131321.
  • 48
    Alazmi WM, Regev A, Molina EG, Schiff ER. Predictors of cirrhosis in Hispanic patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Dig Dis Sci 2006; 51: 17251729.
  • 49
    Kang H, Greenson JK, Omo JT, Chao C, Peterman D, Anderson L, et al. Metabolic syndrome is associated with greater histologic severity, higher carbohydrate, and lower fat diet in patients with NAFLD. Am J Gastroenterol 2006; 101: 22472253.
    Direct Link:
  • 50
    Wilson S, Chalasani N. Noninvasive markers of advanced histology in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: are we there yet? Gastroenterology 2007; 133: 13771378; discussion 1378–1379.
  • 51
    Wieckowska A, Zein NN, Yerian LM, Lopez AR, McCullough AJ, Feldstein AE. In vivo assessment of liver cell apoptosis as a novel biomarker of disease severity in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. HEPATOLOGY 2006; 44: 2733.
  • 52
    Leers MP, Kolgen W, Bjorklund V, Bergman T, Tribbick G, Persson B, et al. Immunocytochemical detection and mapping of a cytokeratin 18 neo-epitope exposed during early apoptosis. J Pathol 1999; 187: 567572.
  • 53
    Yilmaz Y, Dolar E, Ulukaya E, Akgoz S, Keskin M, Kiyici M, et al. Soluble forms of extracellular cytokeratin 18 may differentiate simple steatosis from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. World J Gastroenterol 2007; 13: 837844.
  • 54
    Feldstein AE, Canbay A, Angulo P, Taniai M, Burgart LJ, Lindor KD, et al. Hepatocyte apoptosis and fas expression are prominent features of human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Gastroenterology 2003; 125: 437443.
  • 55
    Charlton M, Angulo P, Chalasani N, Merriman R, Viker K, Charatcharoenwitthaya P, et al. Low circulating levels of dehydroepiandrosterone in histologically advanced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. HEPATOLOGY 2008; 47: 484492.
  • 56
    Angulo P, Hui JM, Marchesini G, Bugianesi E, George J, Farrell GC, et al. The NAFLD fibrosis score: a noninvasive system that identifies liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. HEPATOLOGY 2007; 45: 846854.
  • 57
    Guha IN, Parkes J, Roderick P, Chattopadhyay D, Cross R, Harris S, et al. Noninvasive markers of fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Validating the European Liver Fibrosis Panel and exploring simple markers. HEPATOLOGY 2008; 47: 455460.
  • 58
    Harrison SM, Oliver D, Arnold HLM, Gogia SM, Neuschwander-Tetri BAM. Development and validation of a simple NAFLD clinical scoring system for identifying patients without advanced disease. Gut 2008; 57: 14411447.
  • 59
    Rosenberg WM, Voelker M, Thiel R, Becka M, Burt A, Schuppan D, et al. Serum markers detect the presence of liver fibrosis: a cohort study. Gastroenterology 2004; 127: 17041713.
  • 60
    Ratziu V, Massard J, Charlotte F, Messous D, Imbert-Bismut F, Bonyhay L, et al. Diagnostic value of biochemical markers (FibroTest-FibroSURE) for the prediction of liver fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. BMC Gastroenterol 2006; 6: 6.
  • 61
    Yoneda M, Mawatari H, Fujita K, Endo H, Iida H, Nozaki Y, et al. Noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis by measurement of stiffness in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Dig Liver Dis 2008; 40: 371378.
  • 62
    Wong GL, Wong VW, Choi PC, Chan AW, Chum RH, Chan HK, et al. Assessment of fibrosis by transient elastography compared with liver biopsy and morphometry in chronic liver diseases. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008; 6: 10271035.
  • 63
    Baranova A, Younossi ZM. The future is around the corner: noninvasive diagnosis of progressive nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. HEPATOLOGY 2008; 47: 373375.
  • 64
    Krasnoff JB, Painter PL, Wallace JP, Bass NM, Merriman RB. Health-related fitness and physical activity in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. HEPATOLOGY 2008; 47: 11581166.
  • 65
    Bellentani S, Dalle Grave R, Suppini A, Marchesini G. Behavior therapy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: the need for a multidisciplinary approach. HEPATOLOGY 2008; 47: 746754.
  • 66
    Huang MA, Greenson JK, Chao C, Anderson L, Peterman D, Jacobson J, et al. One-year intense nutritional counseling results in histological improvement in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a pilot study. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100: 10721081.
    Direct Link:
  • 67
    Zivkovic AM, German JB, Sanyal AJ. Comparative review of diets for the metabolic syndrome: implications for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 86: 285300.
  • 68
    Ouyang X, Cirillo P, Sautin Y, McCall S, Bruchette JL, Diehl AM, et al. Fructose consumption as a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J Hepatol 2008; 48: 993999.
  • 69
    Harrison SA, Brunt E, Fecht WJ, Neuschwander-Tetri BA. Orlistat (Xenical) in the treatment of overweight patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH): a multi-centered, randomized, prospective trial [Abstract]. Gastroenterology 2007; 132: A809.
  • 70
    Vemuri VK, Janero DR, Makriyannis A. Pharmacotherapeutic targeting of the endocannabinoid signaling system: drugs for obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Physiol Behav 2008; 93: 671686.
  • 71
    Van Gaal LF, Rissanen AM, Scheen AJ, Ziegler O, Rossner S. Effects of the cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker rimonabant on weight reduction and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight patients: 1-year experience from the RIO-Europe study. Lancet 2005; 365: 13891397.
  • 72
    Pi-Sunyer FX, Aronne LJ, Heshmati HM, Devin J, Rosenstock J. Effect of rimonabant, a cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker, on weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight or obese patients: RIO-North America: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2006; 295: 761775.
  • 73
    Teixeira-Clerc F, Julien B, Grenard P, Tran Van Nhieu J, Deveaux V, Li L, et al. CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonism: a new strategy for the treatment of liver fibrosis. Nat Med 2006; 12: 671676.
  • 74
    Gary-Bobo M, Elachouri G, Gallas JF, Janiak P, Marini P, Ravinet-Trillou C, et al. Rimonabant reduces obesity-associated hepatic steatosis and features of metabolic syndrome in obese Zucker fa/fa rats. HEPATOLOGY 2007; 46: 122129.
  • 75
    Lowell JA, Shenoy S, Ghalib R, Caldwell C, White FV, Peters M, et al. Liver transplantation after jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity. J Am Coll Surg 1997; 185: 123127.
  • 76
    Wills CE. Long-term follow-up of jejunoileal bypass patients with preoperative cirrhosis of the liver. Obes Surg 1994; 4: 3739.
  • 77
    Hocking MP, Davis GL, Franzini DA, Woodward ER. Long-term consequences after jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity. Dig Dis Sci 1998; 43: 24932499.
  • 78
    Levy P, Fried M, Santini F, Finer N. The comparative effects of bariatric surgery on weight and type 2 diabetes. Obes Surg 2007; 17: 12481256.
  • 79
    Sears D, Fillmore G, Bui M, Rodriguez J. Evaluation of gastric bypass patients 1 year after surgery: changes in quality of life and obesity-related conditions. Obes Surg 2008; doi: 10.1007/s11695-008-9604-x.
  • 80
    Sjostrom L, Lindroos AK, Peltonen M, Torgerson J, Bouchard C, Carlsson B, et al. Lifestyle, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors 10 years after bariatric surgery. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 26832693.
  • 81
    Tessier DJ, Eagon JC. Surgical management of morbid obesity. Curr Probl Surg 2008; 45: 68137.
  • 82
    Braghetto I, Korn O, Valladares H, Gutierrez L, Csendes A, Debandi A, et al. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: surgical technique, indications and clinical results. Obes Surg 2007; 17: 14421450.
  • 83
    Furuya CK, Jr., de Oliveira CP, de Mello ES, Faintuch J, Raskovski A, Matsuda M, et al. Effects of bariatric surgery on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: preliminary findings after 2 years. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007; 22: 510514.
  • 84
    Mummadi R, Kasturi KS, Chennareddygari S, Sood G. Effect of bariatric surgery on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): systemic review and meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008; doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2008.08.012.
  • 85
    Dallal RM, Mattar SG, Lord JL, Watson AR, Cottam DR, Eid GM, et al. Results of laparoscopic gastric bypass in patients with cirrhosis. Obes Surg 2004; 14: 4753.
  • 86
    Kral JG, Thung SN, Biron S, Hould FS, Lebel S, Marceau S, et al. Effects of surgical treatment of the metabolic syndrome on liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Surgery 2004; 135: 4858.
  • 87
    Kirpichnikov D, McFarlane SI, Sowers JR. Metformin: an update. Ann Intern Med 2002; 137: 2533.
  • 88
    Hattori Y, Suzuki K, Hattori S, Kasai K. Metformin inhibits cytokine-induced nuclear factor kappaB activation via AMP-activated protein kinase activation in vascular endothelial cells. Hypertension 2006; 47: 11831188.
  • 89
    Lin HZ, Yang SQ, Chuckaree C, Kuhajda F, Ronnet G, Diehl AM. Metformin reverses fatty liver disease in obese, leptin-deficient mice. Nat Med 2000; 6: 9981003.
  • 90
    Angelico F, Burattin M, Alessandri C, Del Ben M, Lirussi F. Drugs improving insulin resistance for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and/or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007:CD005166.
  • 91
    Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA, et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 393403.
  • 92
    Girard J. [ Mechanisms of action of thiazolidinediones]. Diabetes Metab 2001; 27: 271278.
  • 93
    Yki-Jarvinen H. Thiazolidinediones. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 11061118.
  • 94
    Watkins PB. Insight into hepatotoxicity: the troglitazone experience. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 41: 229230.
  • 95
    Scheen AJ. Hepatotoxicity with thiazolidinediones: is it a class effect? Drug Saf 2001; 24: 873888.
  • 96
    Riera-Guardia N, Rothenbacher D. The effect of thiazolidinediones on adiponectin serum level: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Obes Metab 2008; 10: 367375.
  • 97
    Caldwell SH, Hespenheide EE, Redick JA, Iezzoni JC, Battle EH, Sheppard BL. A pilot study of a thiazolidinedione, troglitazone, in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 519525.
    Direct Link:
  • 98
    Neuschwander-Tetri BA, Brunt EM, Wehmeier KR, Oliver D, Bacon BR. Improved nonalcoholic steatohepatitis after 48 weeks of treatment with the PPAR-gamma ligand rosiglitazone. HEPATOLOGY 2003; 38: 10081017.
  • 99
    Promrat K, Lutchman G, Uwaifo GI, Freedman RJ, Soza A, Heller T, et al. A pilot study of pioglitazone treatment for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. HEPATOLOGY 2004; 39: 188196.
  • 100
    Shadid S, Jensen MD. Effect of pioglitazone on biochemical indices of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in upper body obesity. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2003; 1: 384387.
  • 101
    Sanyal AJ, Mofrad PS, Contos MJ, Sargeant C, Luketic VA, Sterling RK, et al. A pilot study of vitamin E versus vitamin E and pioglitazone for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004; 2: 11071115.
  • 102
    Belfort R, Harrison SA, Brown K, Darland C, Finch J, Hardies J, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of pioglitazone in subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 2297307.
  • 103
    Ratziu V, Giral P, Jacqueminet S, Charlotte F, Hartemann-Heurtier A, Serfaty L, et al. Rosiglitazone for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: one-year results of the randomized placebo-controlled Fatty Liver Improvement with Rosiglitazone Therapy (FLIRT) Trial. Gastroenterology 2008; 135: 100110.
  • 104
    Aithal GP, Thomas JA, Kaye PV, Lawson A, Ryder SD, Spendlove I, et al. Randomized, placebo controlled trial of pioglitazone in non-diabetic subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Gastroenterology 2008; doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2008.06.047.
  • 105
    Lutchman G, Modi A, Kleiner DE, Promrat K, Heller T, Ghany M, et al. The effects of discontinuing pioglitazone in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. HEPATOLOGY 2007; 46: 424429.
  • 106
    Nissen SE, Wolski K. Effect of rosiglitazone on the risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes. N Engl J Med 2007; 356: 24572471.
  • 107
    Ding X, Saxena NK, Lin S, Gupta NA, Anania FA. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like protein-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, reverses hepatic steatosis in ob/ob mice. HEPATOLOGY 2006; 43: 173181.
  • 108
    Poon T, Nelson P, Shen L, Mihm M, Taylor K, Fineman M, et al. Exenatide improves glycemic control and reduces body weight in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a dose-ranging study. Diabetes Technol Ther 2005; 7: 467477.
  • 109
    Bugianesi E. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiac lipotoxicity: another piece of the puzzle. HEPATOLOGY 2008; 47: 24.
  • 110
    Ekstedt M, Franzen LE, Mathiesen UL, Thorelius L, Holmqvist M, Bodemar G, et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with NAFLD and elevated liver enzymes. HEPATOLOGY 2006; 44: 865873.
  • 111
    Loria P, Lonardo A, Bellentani S, Day CP, Marchesini G, Carulli N. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular disease: an open question. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2007; 17: 684698.
  • 112
    Targher G. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the metabolic syndrome and the risk of cardiovascular disease: the plot thickens. Diabet Med 2007; 24: 16.
  • 113
    Adams LA, Lymp JF, St Sauver J, Sanderson SO, Lindor KD, Feldstein A, et al. The natural history of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a population-based cohort study. Gastroenterology 2005; 129: 113121.
  • 114
    Ong JP, Pitts A, Younossi ZM. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with higher overall mortality and liver related mortality. J Hepatol 2008; 48: S5S5.
  • 115
    Marchesini G, Bugianesi E, Forlani G, Cerrelli F, Lenzi M, Manini R, et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver, steatohepatitis, and the metabolic syndrome. HEPATOLOGY 2003; 37: 917923.
  • 116
    McCullough AJ. The clinical features, diagnosis and natural history of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Liver Dis 2004; 8: 521533, viii.
  • 117
    Mofrad P, Contos MJ, Haque M, Sargeant C, Fisher RA, Luketic VA, et al. Clinical and histologic spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated with normal ALT values. HEPATOLOGY 2003; 37: 12861292.
  • 118
    Villanova N, Moscatiello S, Ramilli S, Bugianesi E, Magalotti D, Vanni E, et al. Endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk profile in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42: 473480.
  • 119
    Chalasani N, Deeg MA, Crabb DW. Systemic levels of lipid peroxidation and its metabolic and dietary correlates in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2004; 99: 14971502.
    Direct Link:
  • 120
    Pacifico L, Cantisani V, Ricci P, Osborn JF, Schiavo E, Anania C, et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and carotid atherosclerosis in children. Pediatr Res 2008; 63: 423427.
  • 121
    Fracanzani AL, Burdick L, Raselli S, Pedotti P, Grigore L, Santorelli G, et al. Carotid artery intima-media thickness in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Am J Med 2008; 121: 7278.
  • 122
    Targher G, Bertolini L, Padovani R, Rodella S, Zoppini G, Zenari L, et al. Relations between carotid artery wall thickness and liver histology in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Diabetes Care 2006; 29: 13251330.
  • 123
    Akabame S, Hamaguchi M, Tomiyasu K, Tanaka M, Kobayashi-Takenaka Y, Nakano K, et al. Evaluation of vulnerable coronary plaques and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by 64-detector multislice computed tomography (MSCT). Circ J 2008; 72: 618625.
  • 124
    Perseghin G, Lattuada G, De Cobelli F, Esposito A, Belloni E, Ntali G, et al. Increased mediastinal fat and impaired left ventricular energy metabolism in young men with newly found fatty liver. HEPATOLOGY 2008; 47: 5158.
  • 125
    Targher G, Bertolini L, Padovani R, Poli F, Scala L, Tessari R, et al. Increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Diabet Med 2006; 23: 403409.
  • 126
    Chalasani N, Aljadhey H, Kesterson J, Murray MD, Hall SD. Patients with elevated liver enzymes are not at higher risk for statin hepatotoxicity. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: 12871292.
  • 127
    Chalasani N. Statins and hepatotoxicity: focus on patients with fatty liver. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 41: 690695.
  • 128
    Vuppalanchi R, Teal E, Chalasani N. Patients with elevated baseline liver enzymes do not have higher frequency of hepatotoxicity from lovastatin than those with normal baseline liver enzymes. Am J Med Sci 2005; 329: 6265.
  • 129
    Lewis JH, Mortensen ME, Zweig S, Fusco MJ, Medoff JR, Belder R. Efficacy and safety of high-dose pravastatin in hypercholesterolemic patients with well-compensated chronic liver disease: results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. HEPATOLOGY 2007; 46: 14531463.
  • 130
    Kaneda H, Hashimoto E, Yatsuji S, Tokushige K, Shiratori K. Hyaluronic acid levels can predict severe fibrosis and platelet counts can predict cirrhosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 21: 14591465.
  • 131
    Yoneda M, Fujita K, Inamori M, Tamano M, Hiriishi H, Nakajima A. Transient elastography in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Gut 2007; 56: 13301331.
  • 132
    Talwalkar JA, Yin M, Fidler JL, Sanderson SO, Kamath PS, Ehman RL. Magnetic resonance imaging of hepatic fibrosis: emerging clinical applications. HEPATOLOGY 2008; 47: 332342.
  • 133
    Szczepaniak LS, Nurenberg P, Leonard D, Browning JD, Reingold JS, Grundy S, et al. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure hepatic triglyceride content: prevalence of hepatic steatosis in the general population. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2005; 288: E462E468.
  • 134
    Tsuda N, Okada M, Murakami T. Potential of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) for differential diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fatty liver in rats using magnetic resonance imaging. Invest Radiol 2007; 42: 242247.
  • 135
    Portincasa P, Grattagliano I, Lauterburg BH, Palmieri VO, Palasciano G, Stellaard F. Liver breath tests non-invasively predict higher stages of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Clin Sci (Lond) 2006; 111: 135143.
  • 136
    Solga SF, Alkhuraishe A, Cope K, Tabesh A, Clark JM, Torbenson M, et al. Breath biomarkers and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: preliminary observations. Biomarkers 2006; 11: 174183.
  • 137
    Horoz M, Bolukbas C, Bolukbas FF, Sabuncu T, Aslan M, Sarifakiogullari S, et al. Measurement of the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. BMC Gastroenterol 2005; 5: 35.
  • 138
    Hui JM, Hodge A, Farrell GC, Kench JG, Kriketos A, George J. Beyond insulin resistance in NASH: TNF-alpha or adiponectin? HEPATOLOGY 2004; 40: 4654.
  • 139
    Musso G, Gambino R, Biroli G, Carello M, Faga E, Pacini G, et al. Hypoadiponectinemia predicts the severity of hepatic fibrosis and pancreatic Beta-cell dysfunction in nondiabetic nonobese patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100: 24382446.
    Direct Link:
  • 140
    Wieckowska A, Papouchado BG, Li Z, Lopez R, Zein NN, Feldstein AE. Increased hepatic and circulating interleukin-6 levels in human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2008; 103: 13721379.
    Direct Link:
  • 141
    Haukeland JW, Damas JK, Konopski Z, Loberg EM, Haaland T, Goverud I, et al. Systemic inflammation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by elevated levels of CCL2. J Hepatol 2006; 44: 11671174.
  • 142
    Marchesini G, Brizi M, Bianchi G, Tomassetti S, Zoli M, Melchionda N. Metformin in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Lancet 2001; 358: 893894.
  • 143
    Nair S, Diehl AM, Wiseman M, Farr GH, Jr., Perrillo RP. Metformin in the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a pilot open label trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 20: 2328.
  • 144
    Uygun A, Kadayifci A, Isik AT, Ozgurtas T, Deveci S, Tuzun A, et al. Metformin in the treatment of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 19: 537544.
  • 145
    Bugianesi E, Gentilcore E, Manini R, Natale S, Vanni E, Villanova N, et al. A randomized controlled trial of metformin versus vitamin E or prescriptive diet in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100: 10821090.
    Direct Link:
  • 146
    Schwimmer JB, Middleton MS, Deutsch R, Lavine JE. A phase 2 clinical trial of metformin as a treatment for non-diabetic paediatric non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005; 21: 871879.
  • 147
    Loomba R, Lutchman G, Kleiner D, Borg B, Feld J, Modi A, et al. Pilot study of metformin in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [Abstract]. HEPATOLOGY 2006; 44: 260A.
  • 148
    Nobili V, Manco M, Ciampalini P, Alisi A, Devito R, Bugianesi E, et al. Metformin use in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: an open-label, 24-month, observational pilot study. Clin Ther 2008; 30: 11681176.