• 1
    Sattar N, Scherbakova O, Ford I, O'Reilly DSJ, Stanley A, Forrest E, et al. Elevated alanine aminotransferase predicts new-onset type 2 diabetes independently of classical risk factors, metabolic syndrome, and C-reactive protein in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study. Diabetes 2004; 53: 28552860.
  • 2
    Targher G. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the metabolic syndrome and the risk of cardiovascular disease: the plot thickens. Diabet Med 2007; 24: 16.
  • 3
    Athyros VG, Mikhailidis DP, Didangelos TP, Giouleme OI, Liberopoulos EN, Karagiannis A, et al. Effect of multifactorial treatment on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in metabolic syndrome: a randomized study. Curr Med Res Opin 2006; 22: 873883.
  • 4
    Ding X, Saxena NK, Lin S, Gupta NA, Anania FA. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like protein-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, reverses hepatic steatosis in ob/ob mice. HEPATOLOGY 2006; 43: 173181.
  • 5
    Matsuzawa N, Takamura T, Kurita H, Ota T, Ando H, Yokoyama M, et al. Lipid-induced oxidative stress causes steatohepatitis in mice fed an atherogenic diet. HEPATOLOGY 2007; 46: 13921403.
  • 6
    Arsov T, Carter CZ, Nolan CJ, Petrovsky N, Goodnow CC, Teoh NC, et al. Adaptive failure to high-fat diet characterizes steatohepatitis in Alms1 mutant mice. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 2006; 342: 11521159.
  • 7
    Robertson RP, Harmon J, Tran POT, Poitout V. β-Cell glucose toxicity, lipotoxicity, and chronic oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2004; 53: S119S124.
  • 8
    Grant SF, Thorleifsson G, Reynisdottir I, Benediktsson R, Manolescu A, Sainz J, et al. Variant of transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene confers risk of type 2 diabetes. Nat Genet 2006; 38: 320323.
  • 9
    Huertas-Vazquez A, Plaisier C, Weissglas-Volkov D, Sinsheimer J, Canizales Quinteros S, Cruz-Bautista I, et al. TCF7L2 is associated with high serum triacylglycerol and differentially expressed in adipose tissue in families with familial combined hyperlipidaemia. Diabetologia 2008; 51: 6269.
  • 10
    Cauchi S, Meyre D, Dina C, Choquet H, Samson C, Gallina S, et al. Transcription Factor TCFTL2 genetic study in the French population. Expression in human β-cells and adipose tissue and strong association with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2006; 55: 29032908.
  • 11
    Ravikumar B, Carey PE, Snaar JE, Deelchand DK, Cook DB, Neely RD, et al. Real-time assessment of postprandial fat storage in liver and skeletal muscle in health and type 2 diabetes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2005; 288: E789E797.
  • 12
    O'Keefe JH, Bell DS. Postprandial hyperglycemia/hyperlipidemia (postprandial dysmetabolism) is a cardiovascular risk factor. Am J Cardiol 2007; 100: 899904.
  • 13
    Angulo P, Hui JM, Marchesini G, Bugianesi E, George J, Farrell GC, et al. The NAFLD fibrosis score: a noninvasive system that identifies liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. HEPATOLOGY 2007; 45: 846854.
  • 14
    Brunt EM. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: definition and pathology. Semin Liver Dis 2001; 21: 316.
  • 15
    Pisani P, Faggiano F, Krogh V, Palli D, Vineis P, Berrino F. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency dietary questionnaire for use in the Italian EPIC centres. Int J Epidemiol 1997; 26( Suppl 1): S152S160.
  • 16
    Carnovale E, Marletta. Food composition table. Istituto Nazionale della Nutrizione. Milan, Italy: EDRA, 1997.
  • 17
    Salvini S, Parpinel M, Gnagnarella P, Maisonneuve P, Turrini A. Banca Dati di Composizione degli Alimenti per Studi Epidemiologici in Italia. (Food composition database for epidemiological studies in Italy). Milan, Italy: Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, 1988 (in Italian).
  • 18
    Nunez C, Gallagher D, Visser M, Pi-Sunyer FX, Wang Z, Heynsfield SB. Bioimpedance analysis: evaluation of leg-to-leg system based on pressare contact footpad electrodes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997; 29: 524531.
  • 19
    Prati D, Taioli E, Zanella A, Della Torre E, Butelli S, Del Vecchio E, et al. Updated definitions of healthy ranges for serum alanine aminotransferase levels. Ann Intern Med 2002; 137: 110.
  • 20
    Chang Y, Ryu S, Sung E, Jang Y. Higher concentrations of alanine aminotransferase within the reference interval predict non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Chem 2007; 53: 686692.
  • 21
    Mari A, Pacini G, Murphy E, Ludvik B, Nolan JJ. A model-based method for assessing insulin sensitivity from the oral glucose tolerance test. Diabetes Care 2001; 24: 539548.
  • 22
    Abdul-Ghani MA, Matsuda M, Balas B, DeFronzo RA. Muscle and liver insulin resistance indexes derived from the oral glucose tolerance test. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 8994.
  • 23
    Thomaseth K, Kautzky-Willer A, Ludvik B, Prager R, Pacini G. Integrated mathematical model to assess beta-cell activity during the oral glucose test. Am J Physiol 1996; 270: E522E531.
  • 24
    Tura A, Ludvik B, Nolan JJ, Pacini G, Thomaseth K. Insulin and C-peptide secretion and kinetics in humans: direct and model-based measurements during OGTT. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001; 28: E966E974.
  • 25
    Tura A, Kautzky-Willer A, Pacini G. Insulinogenic indices from insulin and C-peptide: comparison of beta-cell function from OGTT and IVGTT. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2006; 72: 298301.
  • 26
    Ahrén B, Pacini G. Importance of quantifying insulin secretion in relation to insulin sensitivity to accurately assess beta cell function in clinical studies. Eur J Endocrinol 2004; 150: 97104.
  • 27
    Cobelli C, Toffolo GM, Dalla Man C, Campioni M, Denti P, Caumo A, et al. Assessment of beta-cell function in humans, simultaneously with insulin sensitivity and hepatic extraction, from intravenous and oral glucose tests. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2007; 293: E1E15.
  • 28
    Abdul-Ghani MA, Williams K, DeFronzo RA, Stern M. What is the best predictor of future type 2 diabetes? Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 15441548.
  • 29
    Musso G, Gambino R, De Michieli F, Cassader M, Rizzetto M, Durazzo M, et al. Dietary habits and their relations to insulin resistance and postprandial lipemia in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. HEPATOLOGY 2003; 37: 909916.
  • 30
    Wieckowska A, Zein NN, Yerian LM, Lopez AR, McCullough AJ, Feldstein AE. In vivo assessment of liver cell apoptosis as a novel biomarker of disease severity in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. HEPATOLOGY 2006; 44: 2733.
  • 31
    Wieckowska A, Lopez AR, Zein NN, McCullough AJ, Feldstein AE. Noninvasive assessment of hepatocyte apoptosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a multi-center validation study. Gastroenterology 2007; 132: A729.
  • 32
    Gustafson B, Smith U. Cytokines promote Wnt signalling and inflammation and impair the normal differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3–L1 preadipocytes. J Biol Chem 2006; 281: 95079516.
  • 33
    Damcott CM, Pollin TI, Reinhart LJ, Ott SH, Shen H, Silver KD, et al. Polymorphisms in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene are associated with type 2 diabetes in the Amish: replication and evidence for a role in both insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Diabetes 2006; 55: 26542659.
  • 34
    Thompson MD, Monga SPS. WNT/β-catenin signalling in liver health and disease. HEPATOLOGY 2007; 45: 12981305.
  • 35
    Gustafson B, Smith U. Cytokines promote Wnt signalling and inflammation and impair the normal differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3–L1 preadipocytes. J Biol Chem 2006; 281: 95079516.
  • 36
    Bennett CN, Ross SE, Longo KA, Bajnok L, Hemati N, Johnson KW, et al. Regulation of Wnt signalling during adipogenesis. J Biol Chem 2002; 277: 3099831004.
  • 37
    Kechagias S, Ernersson A, Dahlqvist O, Lundberg P, Lindström T, Nystrom FH; Fast Food Study Group. Fast-food-based hyper-alimentation can induce rapid and profound elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase in healthy subjects. Gut 2008; 57: 649654.
  • 38
    Tilg H, Hotamisligil GS. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: cytokine-adipokine interplay and regulation of insulin resistance. Gastroenterology 2006; 131: 934945.
  • 39
    Ikura Y, Ohsaka M, Fukushima M, Ryo Y, Muraguchi T. Increased expression of the scavenger receptor CD36 in activated stellate cells in steatotic livers; its relation to fibrotic process in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42: 620A.
  • 40
    Ustundag Y, Ozer IO, Yenidunia S. Oxidized low density lipoprotein in liver tissue samples of our NASH patients, alcoholic and chronic viral hepatitis cases. Gastroenterology 2002; 57: 203.
  • 41
    Li L, Yang G, Li Q, Li K. High-fat and lipid induced insulin resistance in rats: the comparison of glucose metabolism, plasma resistin and adiponectin levels. Ann Nutr Metab 2006; 50: 499505.
  • 42
    Muse ED, Obici S, Bhanot S, Monia BP, McKay RA, Rajala MW, et al. Role of resistin in diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 2004; 114: 232239.
  • 43
    Paniagua JA, Gallego de la Sacristana A, Vidal-Puig A, Latre JM, Sanchez E, Perez-Martinez P, et al. Monounsaturated fat-rich diet prevents central body fat distribution and decreases postprandial adiponectin expression induced by a carbohydrate-rich diet in insulin-resistant subjects. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 17171723.