Growing evidence indicates that deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to tumorigenesis. Down-regulation of miR-195 has been observed in various types of cancers. However, the biological function of miR-195 is still largely unknown. In this study we aimed to elucidate the pathophysiologic role of miR-195. Our results showed that miR-195 expression was significantly reduced in as high as 85.7% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and in all of the five HCC cell lines examined. Moreover, introduction of miR-195 dramatically suppressed the ability of HCC and colorectal carcinoma cells to form colonies in vitro and to develop tumors in nude mice. Furthermore, ectopic expression of miR-195 blocked G1/S transition, whereas inhibition of miR-195 promoted cell cycle progression. Subsequent investigation characterized multiple G1/S transition-related molecules, including cyclin D1, CDK6, and E2F3, as direct targets of miR-195. Silencing of cyclin D1, CDK6, or E2F3 phenocopied the effect of miR-195, whereas overexpression of these proteins attenuated miR-195-induced G1 arrest. In addition, miR-195 significantly repressed the phosphorylation of Rb as well as the transactivation of downstream target genes of E2F. These results imply that miR-195 may block the G1/S transition by repressing Rb-E2F signaling through targeting multiple molecules, including cyclin D1, CDK6, and E2F3. Conclusion: Our data highlight an important role of miR-195 in cell cycle control and in the molecular etiology of HCC, and implicate the potential application of miR-195 in cancer therapy. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.)