• 1
    Thorgeirsson SS, Grisham JW. Molecular pathogenesis of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Nat Genet 2002; 31: 339346.
  • 2
    Farazi PA, DePinho RA. Hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis: from genes to environment. Nat Rev Cancer 2006; 6: 674687.
  • 3
    Mauad TH, van Nieuwkerk CM, Dingemans KP, Smit JJ, Schinkel AH, Notenboom RG, et al. Mice with homozygous disruption of the mdr2 P-glycoprotein gene: a novel animal model for studies of nonsuppurative inflammatory cholangitis and hepatocarcinogenesis. Am J Pathol 1994; 145: 12371245.
  • 4
    Pikarsky E, Porat RM, Stein I, Abramovitch R, Amit S, Kasem S, et al. NF-kappaB functions as a tumour promoter in inflammation-associated cancer. Nature 2004; 431: 461466.
  • 5
    Li Q, Verma IM. NF-kappaB regulation in the immune system. Nat Rev Immunol 2002; 2: 725734.
  • 6
    Karin M, Cao Y, Greten FR, Li ZW. NF-kappaB in cancer: from innocent bystander to major culprit. Nat Rev Cancer 2002; 2: 301310.
  • 7
    Sun B, Karin M. NF-kappaB signaling, liver disease and hepatoprotective agents. Oncogene 2008; 27: 62286244.
  • 8
    Chen LF, Greene WC. Shaping the nuclear action of NF-kappaB. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2004; 5: 392401.
  • 9
    Hayden MS, Ghosh S. Signaling to NF-kappaB. Genes Dev 2004; 18: 21952224.
  • 10
    Karin M, Ben-Neriah Y. Phosphorylation meets ubiquitination: the control of NF-κB activity. Annu Rev Immunol 2000; 18: 621663.
  • 11
    Greten FR, Eckmann L, Greten TF, Park JM, Li ZW, Egan LJ, et al. IKKbeta links inflammation and tumorigenesis in a mouse model of colitis-associated cancer. Cell 2004; 118: 285296.
  • 12
    Karin M, Greten FR. NF-kappaB: linking inflammation and immunity to cancer development and progression. Nat Rev Immunol 2005; 5: 749759.
  • 13
    Luedde T, Beraza N, Kotsikoris V, van Loo G, Nenci A, De Vos R, et al. Deletion of NEMO/IKKgamma in liver parenchymal cells causes steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Cell 2007; 11: 119132.
  • 14
    Schlingemann J, Thuerigen O, Ittrich C, Toedt G, Kramer H, Hahn M, et al. Effective transcriptome amplification for expression profiling on sense-oriented oligonucleotide microarrays. Nucleic Acids Res 2005; 33: e29.
  • 15
    Durchdewald M, Guinea-Viniegra J, Haag D, Riehl A, Lichter P, Hahn M, et al. Podoplanin is a novel fos target gene in skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 2008; 68: 68776883.
  • 16
    Gebhardt C, Riehl A, Durchdewald M, Nemeth J, Furstenberger G, Muller-Decker K, et al. RAGE signaling sustains inflammation and promotes tumor development. J Exp Med 2008; 205: 275285.
  • 17
    Schlaeger C, Longerich T, Schiller C, Bewerunge P, Mehrabi A, Toedt G, et al. Etiology-dependent molecular mechanisms in human hepatocarcinogenesis. HEPATOLOGY 2008; 47: 511520.
  • 18
    Hermani A, De Servi B, Medunjanin S, Tessier PA, Mayer D. S100A8 and S100A9 activate MAP kinase and NF-kappaB signaling pathways and trigger translocation of RAGE in human prostate cancer cells. Exp Cell Res 2006; 312: 184197.
  • 19
    Moinzadeh P, Breuhahn K, Stutzer H, Schirmacher P. Chromosome alterations in human hepatocellular carcinomas correlate with aetiology and histological grade: results of an explorative CGH meta-analysis. Br J Cancer 2005; 92: 935941.
  • 20
    Benedyk M, Sopalla C, Nacken W, Bode G, Melkonyan H, Banfi B, et al. HaCaT keratinocytes overexpressing the S100 proteins S100A8 and S100A9 show increased NADPH oxidase and NF-kappaB activities. J Invest Dermatol 2007; 127: 20012011.
  • 21
    Furutani T, Hino K, Okuda M, Gondo T, Nishina S, Kitase A, et al. Hepatic iron overload induces hepatocellular carcinoma in transgenic mice expressing the hepatitis C virus polyprotein. Gastroenterology 2006; 130: 20872098.
  • 22
    Arsura M, Cavin LG. Nuclear factor-kappaB and liver carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett 2005; 229: 157169.
  • 23
    Elsharkawy AM, Mann DA. Nuclear factor-kappaB and the hepatic inflammation-fibrosis-cancer axis. HEPATOLOGY 2007; 46: 590597.
  • 24
    Maeda S, Kamata H, Luo JL, Leffert H, Karin M. IKKbeta couples hepatocyte death to cytokine-driven compensatory proliferation that promotes chemical hepatocarcinogenesis. Cell 2005; 121: 977990.
  • 25
    Vainer GW, Pikarsky E, Ben-Neriah Y. Contradictory functions of NF-kappaB in liver physiology and cancer. Cancer Lett 2008; 267: 182188.
  • 26
    Dale I, Fagerhol MK, Naesgaard I. Purification and partial characterization of a highly immunogenic human leukocyte protein, the L1 antigen. Eur J Biochem 1983; 134: 16.
  • 27
    Foell D, Wittkowski H, Vogl T, Roth J. S100 proteins expressed in phagocytes: a novel group of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules. J Leukoc Biol 2007; 81: 2837.
  • 28
    Gebhardt C, Nemeth J, Angel P, Hess J. S100A8 and S100A9 in inflammation and cancer. Biochem Pharmacol 2006; 72: 16221631.
  • 29
    Foell D, Frosch M, Sorg C, Roth J. Phagocyte-specific calcium-binding S100 proteins as clinical laboratory markers of inflammation. Clin Chim Acta 2004; 344: 3751.
  • 30
    Cheng P, Corzo CA, Luetteke N, Yu B, Nagaraj S, Bui MM, et al. Inhibition of dendritic cell differentiation and accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in cancer is regulated by S100A9 protein. J Exp Med 2008; 205: 22352249.
  • 31
    Sinha P, Okoro C, Foell D, Freeze HH, Ostrand-Rosenberg S, Srikrishna G. Proinflammatory S100 proteins regulate the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. J Immunol 2008; 181: 46664675.
  • 32
    Marx J. Cancer immunology. Cancer's bulwark against immune attack: MDS cells. Science 2008; 319: 154156.
  • 33
    Turovskaya O, Foell D, Sinha P, Vogl T, Newlin R, Nayak J, et al. RAGE, carboxylated glycans and S100A8/A9 play essential roles in colitis-associated carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 2008; 29: 20352043.
  • 34
    Ghavami S, Rashedi I, Dattilo BM, Eshraghi M, Chazin WJ, Hashemi M, et al. S100A8/A9 at low concentration promotes tumor cell growth via RAGE ligation and MAP kinase-dependent pathway. J Leukoc Biol 2008; 83: 14841492.
  • 35
    Haura EB, Turkson J, Jove R. Mechanisms of disease: Insights into the emerging role of signal transducers and activators of transcription in cancer. Nat Clin Pract Oncol 2005; 2: 315324.
  • 36
    Battle TE, Frank DA. The role of STATs in apoptosis. Curr Mol Med 2002; 2: 381392.
  • 37
    Tien Kuo M, Savaraj N. Roles of reactive oxygen species in hepatocarcinogenesis and drug resistance gene expression in liver cancers. Mol Carcinog 2006; 45: 701709.
  • 38
    Sakurai T, He G, Matsuzawa A, Yu GY, Maeda S, Hardiman G, et al. Hepatocyte necrosis induced by oxidative stress and IL-1 alpha release mediate carcinogen-induced compensatory proliferation and liver tumorigenesis. Cancer Cell 2008; 14: 156165.
  • 39
    Katzenellenbogen M, Mizrahi L, Pappo O, Klopstock N, Olam D, Barash H, et al. Molecular mechanisms of the chemopreventive effect on hepatocellular carcinoma development in Mdr2 knockout mice. Mol Cancer Ther 2007; 6: 12831291.
  • 40
    Mendelson KG, Contois LR, Tevosian SG, Davis RJ, Paulson KE. Independent regulation of JNK/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases by metabolic oxidative stress in the liver. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1996; 93: 1290812913.
  • 41
    Hui L, Bakiri L, Mairhorfer A, Schweifer N, Haslinger C, Kenner L, et al. p38alpha suppresses normal and cancer cell proliferation by antagonizing the JNK-c-Jun pathway. Nat Genet 2007; 39: 741749.