SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Kowdley KV, Caldwell S. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a twenty-first century epidemic? J Clin Gastroenterol 2006; 40(Suppl 1): S2S4.
  • 2
    Ali R, Cusi K. New diagnostic and treatment approaches in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Ann Med 2009; 41: 265278.
  • 3
    Marchesini G, Brizi M, Bianchi G, Tomassetti S, Bugianesi E, Lenzi M, et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a feature of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes 2001; 50: 18441850.
  • 4
    Sanyal A, Campbell-Sargent C, Mirshahi F, Rizzo W, Contos M, Sterling R, et al. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: association of insulin resistance and mitochondrial abnormalities. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: 11831192.
  • 5
    Seppala-Lindroos A, Vehkavaara S, Hakkinen AM, Goto T, Westerbacka J, Sovijarvi A, et al. Fat accumulation in the liver is associated with defects in insulin suppression of glucose production and serum free fatty acids independent of obesity in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002; 87: 30233028.
  • 6
    Bugianesi E, Gastaldelli A, Vanni E, Gambino R, Cassader M, Baldi S, et al. Insulin resistance in non-diabetic patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: sites and mechanisms. Diabetologia 2005; 48: 634642.
  • 7
    Gastaldelli A, Cusi K, Pettiti M, Hardies J, Miyazaki Y, Berria R, et al. Relationship between hepatic/visceral fat and hepatic insulin resistance in nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects. Gastroenterology 2007; 133: 496506.
  • 8
    Korenblat KM, Fabbrini E, Mohammed BS, Klein S. Liver, muscle, and adipose tissue insulin action is directly related to intrahepatic triglyceride content in obese subjects. Gastroenterology 2008; 134: 13691375.
  • 9
    Belfort R, Harrison SA, Brown K, Darland C, Finch J, Hardies J, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of pioglitazone in subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 22972307.
  • 10
    Unger RH. Lipotoxicity in the pathogenesis of obesity-dependent NIDDM. Diabetes 1995; 44: 863869.
  • 11
    Cusi K. Thiazolidinediones in NASH. An odd couple meant to be? J Clin Gastroenterol 2009; 43: 503505.
  • 12
    Browning JD, Horton JD. Molecular mediators of hepatic steatosis and liver injury. J Clin Invest 2004; 114: 147152.
  • 13
    Diehl AM. Lessons from animal models of NASH. Hepatol Res 2005; 33: 138144.
  • 14
    Begriche K, Igoudjil A, Pessayre D, Fromenty B. Mitochondrial dysfunction in NASH: causes, consequences and possible means to prevent it. Mitochondrion 2006; 6: 128.
  • 15
    Greenfield V, Cheung O, Sanyal A. Recent advances in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2008; 24: 320327.
  • 16
    Barrows B, Parks E. Contributions of different fatty acid sources to very low-density lipoprotein-triacylglycerol in the fasted and fed states. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91: 14461452.
  • 17
    Donnelly KL, Smith CI, Schwarzenberg SJ, Jessurun J, Boldt MD, Parks EJ. Sources of fatty acids stored in liver and secreted via lipoproteins in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Clin Invest 2005; 115: 13431351.
  • 18
    Miyazaki Y, Glass L, Triplitt C, Matsuda M, Cusi K, Mahankali A, et al. Effect of rosiglitazone on glucose and non-esterified fatty acid metabolism in type II diabetic patients. Diabetologia 2001; 44: 22102219.
  • 19
    Gastaldelli A, Miyazaki Y, Mahankali A, Berria R, Pettiti M, Buzzigoli E, et al. The effect of pioglitazone on the liver: role of adiponectin. Diabetes Care 2006; 29: 22752281.
  • 20
    Cusi K. The epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus: its link to obesity, insulin resistance and lipotoxicity. In: Regensteiner JG, Reusch JEB, Stewart KJ, Veves A, editors. Diabetes and Exercise. Humana Press. 2009: 354.
  • 21
    Spiegelman B. PPAR-γ: adipogenic regulator and thiazolidinedione receptor. Diabetes 1998; 47: 507514.
  • 22
    Olefsky J. Treatment of insulin resistance with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonists. J Clin Invest 2000; 106: 467472.
  • 23
    Bays H, Mandarino L, DeFronzo RA. Role of the adipocyte, free fatty acids, and ectopic fat in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus: peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor agonists provide a rational therapeutic approach. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 463478.
  • 24
    Vidal-Puig AJ, Considine RV, Jimenez-Linan M, Werman A, Pories WJ, Caro JF, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gene expression in human tissues. Effects of obesity, weight loss, and regulation by insulin and glucocorticoids. J Clin Invest 1997; 99: 24162422.
  • 25
    Takamura T, Nohara E, Nagai Y, Kobayashi K. Stage-specific effects of a thiazolidinedione on proliferation, differentiation and PPARgamma mRNA expression in 3T3–L1 adipocytes. Eur J Pharmacol 2001; 422: 2329.
  • 26
    Gurnell M, Wentworth JM, Agostini M, Adams M, Collingwood TN, Provenzano C, et al. A dominant-negative peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) mutant is a constitutive repressor and inhibits PPARgamma-mediated adipogenesis. J Biol Chem 2000; 275: 57545759.
  • 27
    Yamauchi T, Kamon J, Minokoshi Y, Ito Y, Waki H, Uchida S, et al. Adiponectin stimulates glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Nat Med 2002; 8: 12881295.
  • 28
    Tiikkainen M, Hakkinen AM, Korsheninnikova E, Nyman T, Makimattila S, Yki-Jarvinen H. Effects of rosiglitazone and metformin on liver fat content, hepatic insulin resistance, insulin clearance, and gene expression in adipose tissue in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2004; 53: 21692176.
  • 29
    Bajaj M, Suraamornkul S, Piper P, Hardies LJ, Glass L, Cersosimo E, et al. Decreased plasma adiponectin concentrations are closely related to hepatic fat content and hepatic insulin resistance in pioglitazone-treated type 2 diabetic patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 200206.
  • 30
    Libby P, Plutzky J. Inflammation in diabetes mellitus: role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists. Am J Cardiol 2007; 99: 27B40B.
  • 31
    Kallwitz E, McLachlan A, Cotler S. Role of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors in the pathogenesis and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14: 2228.
  • 32
    Groop LC, Bonadonna RC, DelPrato S, Ratheiser K, Zyck K, Ferrannini E, et al. Glucose and free fatty acid metabolism in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Evidence for multiple sites of insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 1989; 84: 205213.
  • 33
    Kashyap S, Belfort R, Gastaldelli A, Pratipanawatr T, Berria R, Pratipanawatr W, et al. A sustained increase in plasma free fatty acids impairs insulin secretion in nondiabetic subjects genetically predisposed to develop type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2003; 52: 24612474.
  • 34
    Kashyap S, Belfort R, Berria R, Suraamornkul S, Pratipranawatr T, Finlayson J, et al. Discordant effects of a chronic physiological increase in plasma FFA on insulin signaling in healthy subjects with or without a family history of type 2 diabetes. Am J Physiol 2004; 287: E537E546.
  • 35
    Cusi K, Kashyap S, Belfort R, Bajaj M, Cersosimo E, Lee S. Effects on insulin secretion and action of short-term reduction of plasma free fatty acids with acipimox in non-diabetic subjects genetically predisposed to type 2 diabetes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2007; 292: E1775E1781.
  • 36
    Kashyap SR, Belfort R, Cersosimo E, Lee S, Cusi K. Chronic low-dose lipid infusion in healthy patients induces markers of endothelial activation independent of its metabolic effects. J Cardiometab Syndr 2008; 3: 141146.
  • 37
    Roden M. Mechanisms of disease: hepatic steatosis in type 2 diabetes - pathogenesis and clinical relevance. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 2006; 2: 335348.
  • 38
    Perseghin G, Lattuada G, De Cobelli F, Esposito A, Belloni E, Ntali G, et al. Increased mediastinal fat and impaired left ventricular energy metabolism in young men with newly found fatty liver. HEPATOLOGY 2008; 47: 5158.
  • 39
    Boden G, Lebed B, Schatz M, Homko C, Lemieux S. Effects of acute changes of plasma free fatty acids on intramyocellular fat content and insulin resistance in healthy subjects. Diabetes 2001; 50: 16121617.
  • 40
    Wang S, Kamat A, Swamy A, et al. Hepatic steatosis is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in obese and diabetic rats [abstract]. Diabetes 2008; 55(Suppl 1).
  • 41
    Promrat K, Lutchman G, Uwaifo GI, Freedman RJ, Soza A, Heller T. A pilot study of pioglitazone treatment for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. HEPATOLOGY 2004; 39: 188196.
  • 42
    Neuschwander-Tetri BA, Brunt EM, Kent R, Wehmeier D, Oliver B, Bacon R. Improved nonalcoholic steatohepatitis after 48 weeks of treatment with the PPAR-γ ligand rosiglitazone. HEPATOLOGY 2003; 38: 10081017.
  • 43
    Sanyal AJ, Mofrad PS, Contos MJ, Sargeant C, Luketic VA, Sterling RK, et al. A pilot study of vitamin E versus vitamin E and pioglitazone for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004; 2: 11071115.
  • 44
    Ratziu V, Giral P, Jacqueminet S, Charlotte F, Hartemann-Heurtier A, Serfaty L, et al.; LIDO Study Group. Rosiglitazone for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: one-year results of the randomized placebo-controlled Fatty Liver Improvement with Rosiglitazone Therapy (FLIRT) Trial. Gastroenterology 2008; 135: 100110.
  • 45
    Aithal GP, Thomas JA, Kaye PV, Lawson A, Ryder SD, Spendlove I, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of pioglitazone in nondiabetic subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Gastroenterology 2008; 135: 11761184.
  • 46
    Caldwell S, Argo C, Al-Osaimi A. Therapy of NAFLD: insulin sensitizing agents. J Clin Gastroenterol 2006; 40: S61S66.
  • 47
    Bogacka I, Xie H, Bray GA, Smith SR. The effect of pioglitazone on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma target genes related to lipid storage in vivo. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 16601667.
  • 48
    Bogacka I, Xie H, Bray GA, Smith SR. Pioglitazone induces mitochondrial biogenesis in human subcutaneous adipose tissue in vivo. Diabetes 2005; 54: 13921399.
  • 49
    Bouskila M, Pajvani UB, Scherer PE. Adiponectin: a relevant player in PPARgamma-agonist-mediated improvements in hepatic insulin sensitivity? Int J Obes (Lond) 2005; 29(Suppl 1): S17S23.
  • 50
    Caldwell S, Chang Y, Nakamoto R, Krugner-Higby L. Mitochondria in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Liver Dis 2004; 8: 595617.