• 1
    Bays H, Dujovne CA. Adiposopathy is a more rational treatment target for metabolic disease than obesity alone. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2006; 8: 144156.
  • 2
    Bellentani S, Saccoccio G, Masutti F, Croce LS, Brandi G, Sasso F, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for hepatic steatosis in Northern Italy. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132: 112117.
  • 3
    Hwang JH, Stein DT, Barzilai N, Cui MH, Tonelli J, Kishore P, et al. Increased intrahepatic triglyceride is associated with peripheral insulin resistance: in vivo MR imaging and spectroscopy studies. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2007; 293: E1663E1669.
  • 4
    Yki-Jarvinen H. Fat in the liver and insulin resistance. Ann Med 2005; 37: 347356.
  • 5
    Targher G, Bertolini L, Poli F, Rodella S, Scala L, Tessari R, et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and risk of future cardiovascular events among type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes 2005; 54: 35413546.
  • 6
    Browning JD, Szczepaniak LS, Dobbins R, Nuremberg P, Horton JD, Cohen JC, et al. Prevalence of hepatic steatosis in an urban population in the United States: impact of ethnicity. HEPATOLOGY 2004; 40: 13871395.
  • 7
    Szczepaniak LS, Nurenberg P, Leonard D, Browning JD, Reingold JS, Grundy S, et al. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure hepatic triglyceride content: prevalence of hepatic steatosis in the general population. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2005; 288: E462E468.
  • 8
    Petersen KF, Dufour S, Befroy D, Lehrke M, Hendler RE, Shulman GI. Reversal of nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis, hepatic insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia by moderate weight reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2005; 54: 603608.
  • 9
    Sass DA, Chang P, Chopra KB. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a clinical review. Dig Dis Sci 2005; 50: 171180.
  • 10
    Scheen AJ, Luyckx FH. Obesity and liver disease. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002; 16: 703716.
  • 11
    Shaw K, Gennat H, O'Rourke P, Del Mar C. Exercise for overweight or obesity (review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 4:CD003817.
  • 12
    Hansen D, Dendale P, Berger J, van Loon LJC, Meeusen R. The effects of exercise trainining on fat-mass loss in obese patients during energy intake restriction. Sports Med 2007; 37: 3146.
  • 13
    Franz MJ, VanWormer JJ, Crain AL, Boucher JL, Histon T, Caplan W, et al. Weight-loss outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of weight-loss clinical trials with a minimum 1-year follow-up. J Am Diet Assoc 2007; 107: 17551767.
  • 14
    Church TS, Kuk JL, Ross R, Priest EL, Biltoff E, Blair SN. Association of cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index, and waist circumference to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology 2006; 130: 20232030.
  • 15
    Nguyen-Duy T-B, Nichaman MZ, Church TS, Blair SN, Ross R. Visceral fat and liver fat are independent predictors of metabolic risk factors in men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2003; 284: E1065E1071.
  • 16
    Krasnoff JB, Painter PL, Wallace JP, Bass NM, Merriman RB, Krasnoff JB, et al. Health-related fitness and physical activity in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. HEPATOLOGY 2008; 47: 11581166.
  • 17
    Perseghin G, Lattuada G, De Cobelli F, Ragogna F, Ntali G, Esposito A, et al. Habitual physical activity is associated with intrahepatic fat content in humans. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 683688.
  • 18
    Hickman IE, Jonsson JR, Prins JB. Modest weight loss and physical activity in overweight patients with chronic liver disease results in sustained improvements in alanine aminotransferase, fasting insulin and quality of life. Gut 2004; 53: 413419.
  • 19
    Ueno T, Sugawara H, Sujaku K. Therapeutic effects of restricted diet and exercise in obese paitents with fatty liver. J Hepatol 1997; 27: 103107.
  • 20
    Terao T, Fujise T, Yamashita Y, Nakano S. Dependence of lipid-lipoprotein metabolism on exercise intensity in experimental fatty liver rats. Tokai J Exp Clin Med 1988; 13: 99107.
  • 21
    Gauthier MS, Couturier K, Latour JG, Lavoie JM. Concurrent exercise prevents high-fat-diet-induced macrovesicular hepatic steatosis. J Appl Physiol 2003; 94: 21272134.
  • 22
    St. George A, Bauman A, Johnston A, Farrell G, Chey T, George J. The independent effects of physical activity in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. HEPATOLOGY 2009;doi:10.1002/hep.22940.
  • 23
    Anonymous. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, and flexibility in healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998; 30: 975991.
  • 24
    Szczepaniak LS, Babcock EE, Schick F, Dobbins RL, Garg A, Burns DK, et al. Measurement of intracellular triglyceride stores by H spectroscopy: validation in vivo. Am J Physiol 1999; 276: E977E989.
  • 25
    Johnson NA, Walton DW, Sachinwalla T, Thompson CH, Smith K, Ruell PA, et al. Noninvasive assessment of hepatic lipid composition: Advancing understanding and management of fatty liver disorders. HEPATOLOGY 2008; 47: 15131523.
  • 26
    Positano V, Gastaldelli A, Sironi AM, Santarelli MF, Lombardi M, Landini L. An accurate and robust method for unsupervised assessment of abdominal fat by MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging 2004; 20: 684689.
  • 27
    Demerath EW, Ritter KJ, Couch WA, Rogers NL, Moreno GM, Choh A, et al. Validity of a new automated software program for visceral adipose tissue estimation. Int J Obes 2007; 31: 285291.
  • 28
    Arif H, Racette SB, Villareal DT, Holloszy JO, Weiss EP. Comparison of methods for assessing abdominal adipose tissue from magnetic resonance images. Obesity 2007; 15: 22402244.
  • 29
    Johnson NA, Stannard SR, Mehalski K, Trenell MI, Sachinwalla T, Thompson CH, et al. Intramyocellular triacylglycerol in prolonged cycling with high- and low-carbohydrate availability. J Appl Physiol 2003; 94: 13651372.
  • 30
    Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 393403.
  • 31
    Gronemeyer SA, Steen RG, Kauffman WM, Reddick WE, Glass JO. Fast adipose tissue (FAT) assessment by MRI. Magn Reson Imaging 2000; 18: 815818.
  • 32
    Kay SJ, Fiatarone Singh MA. The influence of physical activity on abdominal fat: a systematic review of the literature. Obes Rev 2006; 7: 183200.
  • 33
    Horowitz JF, Leone TC, Feng W, Kelly DP, Klein S. Effect of endurance training on lipid metabolism in women: a potential role for PPARalpha in the metabolic response to training. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2000; 279: E348E355.
  • 34
    Arner P, Kriegholm E, Engfeldt P, Bolinder J. Adrenergic regulation of lipolysis in situ at rest and during exercise. J Clin Invest 1990; 85: 893898.
  • 35
    Shojaee-Moradie F, Baynes KC, Pentecost C, Bell JD, Thomas EL, Jackson NC, et al. Exercise training reduces fatty acid availability and improves the insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism. Diabetologia 2007; 50: 404413.
  • 36
    Muniyappa R, Lee S, Chen H, Quon MJ. Current approaches for assessing insulin sensitivity and resistance in vivo: advantages, limitations, and appropriate usage. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2008; 294: E15E26.
  • 37
    Morio B, Holmback U, Gore D, Wolfe RR. Increased VLDL-TAG turnover during and after acute moderate-intensity exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004; 36: 801806.
  • 38
    Thompson PD, Cullinane EM, Sady SP, Flynn MM, Chenevert CB, Herbert PN. High density lipoprotein metabolism in endurance athletes and sedentary men. Circulation 1991; 84: 140152.
  • 39
    Ruderman NB, Park H, Kaushik VK, Dean D, Constant S, Prentki M, et al. AMPK as a metabolic switch in rat muscle, liver and adipose tissue after exercise. Acta Physiol Scand 2003; 178: 435442.
  • 40
    Klein S. The case of visceral fat: argument for the defense. J Clin Invest 2004; 113: 15301532.
  • 41
    Kotronen A, Juurinen L, Tiikkainen M, Vehkavaara S, Yki-Jarvinen H, Kotronen A, et al. Increased liver fat, impaired insulin clearance, and hepatic and adipose tissue insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Gastroenterology 2008; 135: 122130.
  • 42
    Hannukainen JC, Nuutila P, Ronald B, Kaprio J, Kujala UM, Janatuinen T. Increased physical activity decreases hepatic free fatty acid uptake: a study in human monozygotic twins. J Physiol 2007; 278: 347358.