Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 plays a critical role in DNA replication control during rat liver regeneration

Authors

  • Delphine Garnier,

    1. Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U522, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pontchaillou, Rennes, France
    2. Université de Rennes 1, EA 4428 Faculté de médecine, Rennes, France
    3. Université Européenne de Bretagne, France
    4. IFR 140, Rennes, France
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Pascal Loyer,

    1. Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U522, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pontchaillou, Rennes, France
    2. Université de Rennes 1, EA 4428 Faculté de médecine, Rennes, France
    3. Université Européenne de Bretagne, France
    4. IFR 140, Rennes, France
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Catherine Ribault,

    1. Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U522, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pontchaillou, Rennes, France
    2. Université de Rennes 1, EA 4428 Faculté de médecine, Rennes, France
    3. Université Européenne de Bretagne, France
    4. IFR 140, Rennes, France
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  • Christiane Guguen-Guillouzo,

    1. Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U522, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pontchaillou, Rennes, France
    2. Université de Rennes 1, EA 4428 Faculté de médecine, Rennes, France
    3. Université Européenne de Bretagne, France
    4. IFR 140, Rennes, France
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  • Anne Corlu

    Corresponding author
    1. Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U522, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pontchaillou, Rennes, France
    2. Université de Rennes 1, EA 4428 Faculté de médecine, Rennes, France
    3. Université Européenne de Bretagne, France
    4. IFR 140, Rennes, France
    • INSERM U522, Hôpital Pontchaillou, 35033 Rennes, France
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    • fax: (33).2.99.54.01.37.


  • Potential conflict of interest: Nothing to report.

Abstract

Liver regeneration is a unique process to restore hepatic homeostasis through rapid and synchronous proliferation of differentiated hepatocytes. Previous studies have shown that hepatocyte proliferation is characterized by high expression levels of the “mitotic” cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) during S-phase compared to other mammalian cells. In the light of findings showing that Cdk1 compensates for the loss of Cdk2 and drives S-phase in Cdk2-deficient cells derived from Cdk2 knockout mice, we took advantage of the models of liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy and primary cultures of normal rat hepatocytes to further examine the involvement of Cdk1 during DNA replication in hepatocytes and to dissect specific cell cycle regulation in hepatocytes compared to control human foreskin fibroblasts. In hepatocytes, Cdk1 exhibited a biphasic activation pattern correlating S-phase and G2/M transition, bound to cyclin A or B1 and localized to the nucleus during DNA replication. Importantly, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of Cdk1 led to a strong decrease in DNA synthesis without affecting centrosome duplication. Furthermore, in hepatocytes arrested by the iron chelator O-Trensox in early S-phase prior to DNA replication, Cdk1/cyclin complexes were active, while replication initiation components such as the minichromosome maintenance 7 (Mcm7) protein were loaded onto DNA. Moreover, Mcm7 expression and loading onto DNA were not modified by Cdk1 silencing. Conversely, in fibroblasts, Cdk1 expression and activation were low in S-phase and its silencing did not reduce DNA synthesis. Conclusion: Cdk1 is essential for DNA replication downstream formation of replication initiation complexes in hepatocytes but not in fibroblasts and, as such, our data exemplify crucial differences in the cell cycle regulation between various mammalian cell types. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.)

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