• 1
    Friedman SL. Hepatic fibrosis—overview. Toxicology 2008; 254: 120129.
  • 2
    Bataller R, Brenner DA. Liver fibrosis. J Clin Invest 2005; 115: 209218.
  • 3
    Guo J, Friedman SL. Hepatic fibrogenesis. Semin Liver Dis 2007; 27: 413426.
  • 4
    Friedman SL. Mechanisms of hepatic fibrogenesis. Gastroenterology 2008; 134: 16551669.
  • 5
    Liu X, Hu H, Yin JQ. Therapeutic strategies against TGF-beta signaling pathway in hepatic fibrosis. Liver Int 2006; 26: 822.
  • 6
    Fujita T, Uchida K, Maruyama N. Purification of senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) and its androgen-independent decrease with age in the rat liver. Biochim Biophys Acta 1992; 1116: 122128.
  • 7
    Mori T, Ishigami A, Seyama K, Onai R, Kubo S, Shimizu K, et al. Senescence marker protein-30 knockout mouse as a novel murine model of senile lung. Pathol Int 2004; 54: 167173.
  • 8
    Kondo Y, Inai Y, Sato Y, Handa S, Kubo S, Shimokado K, et al. Senescence marker protein 30 functions as gluconolactonase in L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis, and its knockout mice are prone to scurvy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006; 103: 57235728.
  • 9
    Park JK, Jeong DH, Park HY, Son KH, Shin DH, Do SH, et al. Hepatoprotective effect of Arazyme on CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury in SMP30 knock-out mice. Toxicology 2008; 246: 132142.
  • 10
    Ishigami A, Fujita T, Handa S, Shirasawa T, Koseki H, Kitamura T, et al. Senescence marker protein-30 knockout mouse liver is highly susceptible to tumor necrosis factor-alpha-and Fas-mediated apoptosis. Am J Pathol 2002; 161: 12731281.
  • 11
    Ishigami A, Kondo Y, Nanba R, Ohsawa T, Handa S, Kubo S, et al. SMP30 deficiency in mice causes an accumulation of neutral lipids and phospholipids in the liver and shortens the life span. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004; 315: 575580.
  • 12
    Jeong DH, Goo MJ, Hong IH, Yang HJ, Ki MR, Do SH, et al. Inhibition of radiation-induced apoptosis via overexpression of SMP30 in Smad3-knockout mice liver. J Radiat Res (Tokyo) 2008; 49: 653660.
  • 13
    Gao B, Radaeva S, Jeong WI. Activation of natural killer cells inhibits liver fibrosis: a novel strategy to treat liver fibrosis. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007; 1: 173180.
  • 14
    Dooley S, Delvoux B, Streckert M, Bonzel L, Stopa M, ten Dijke P, et al. Transforming growth factor beta signal transduction in hepatic stellate cells via Smad2/3 phosphorylation, a pathway that is abrogated during in vitro progression to myofibroblasts. TGFbeta signal transduction during transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells. FEBS Lett 2001; 502: 410.
  • 15
    Blobe GC, Schiemann WP, Lodish HF. Role of transforming growth factor beta in human disease. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 13501358.
  • 16
    Jeong WI, Do SH, Yun HS, Song BJ, Kim SJ, Kwak WJ, et al. Hypoxia potentiates transforming growth factor-beta expression of hepatocyte during the cirrhotic condition in rat liver. Liver Int 2004; 24: 658668.
  • 17
    Miyahara T, Schrum L, Rippe R, Xiong S, Yee HF Jr, Motomura K, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and hepatic stellate cell activation. J Biol Chem 2000; 275: 3571535722.
  • 18
    Sung CK, She H, Xiong S, Tsukamoto H. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activity at a posttranslational level in hepatic stellate cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2004; 286: G722G729.
  • 19
    Hazra S, Xiong S, Wang J, Rippe RA, Krishna V, Chatterjee K, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma induces a phenotypic switch from activated to quiescent hepatic stellate cells. J Biol Chem 2004; 279: 1139211401.
  • 20
    Yang L, Chan CC, Kwon OS, Liu S, McGhee J, Stimpson SA, et al. Regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in liver fibrosis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2006; 291: G902G911.
  • 21
    Marra F, Efsen E, Romanelli RG, Caligiuri A, Pastacaldi S, Batignani G, et al. Ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma modulate profibrogenic and proinflammatory actions in hepatic stellate cells. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 466478.
  • 22
    She H, Xiong S, Hazra S, Tsukamoto H. Adipogenic transcriptional regulation of hepatic stellate cells. J Biol Chem 2005; 280: 49594967.
  • 23
    Henneberger C, Grantyn R, Rothe T. Rapid genotyping of newborn gene mutant mice. J Neurosci Methods 2000; 100: 123126.
  • 24
    Sato T, Seyama K, Sato Y, Mori H, Souma S, Akiyoshi T, et al. Senescence marker protein-30 protects mice lungs from oxidative stress, aging, and smoking. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006; 174: 530537.
  • 25
    Son TG, Zou Y, Jung KJ, Yu BP, Ishigami A, Maruyama N, et al. SMP30 deficiency causes increased oxidative stress in brain. Mech Ageing Dev 2006; 127: 451457.
  • 26
    Nagy L, Tontonoz P, Alvarez JG, Chen H, Evans RM. Oxidized LDL regulates macrophage gene expression through ligand activation of PPARgamma. Cell 1998; 93: 229240.
  • 27
    Barak Y, Nelson MC, Ong ES, Jones YZ, Ruiz-Lozano P, Chien KR, et al. PPAR gamma is required for placental, cardiac, and adipose tissue development. Mol Cell 1999; 4: 585595.
  • 28
    Rosen ED, Sarraf P, Troy AE, Bradwin G, Moore K, Milstone DS, et al. PPAR gamma is required for the differentiation of adipose tissue in vivo and in vitro. Mol Cell 1999; 4: 611617.
  • 29
    Ghosh AK, Bhattacharyya S, Wei J, Kim S, Barak Y, Mori Y, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} abrogates Smad-dependent collagen stimulation by targeting the p300 transcriptional coactivator. 2009;23: 29682977.
  • 30
    Ferguson HE, Kulkarni A, Lehmann GM, Garcia-Bates TM, Thatcher TH, Huxlin KR, et al. Electrophilic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) ligands have potent anti-fibrotic effects in human lung fibroblasts. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2009; 41: 722730.
  • 31
    Kawai T, Masaki T, Doi S, Arakawa T, Yokoyama Y, Doi T, et al. PPAR-gamma agonist attenuates renal interstitial fibrosis and inflammation through reduction of TGF-beta. Lab Invest 2009; 89: 4758.
  • 32
    Zhao C, Chen W, Yang L, Chen L, Stimpson SA, Diehl AM. PPARgamma agonists prevent TGFbeta1/Smad3-signaling in human hepatic stellate cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2006; 350: 385391.
  • 33
    Li Y, Wen X, Spataro BC, Hu K, Dai C, Liu Y. Hepatocyte growth factor is a downstream effector that mediates the antifibrotic action of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 17: 5465.
  • 34
    Saika S, Yamanaka O, Okada Y, Miyamoto T, Kitano A, Flanders KC, et al. Effect of overexpression of PPARgamma on the healing process of corneal alkali burn in mice. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2007; 293: C75C86.
  • 35
    Hong KM, Belperio JA, Keane MP, Burdick MD, Strieter RM. Differentiation of human circulating fibrocytes as mediated by transforming growth factor-beta and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. J Biol Chem. 2007; 282: 2291022920.
  • 36
    Kaul D, Baba MI. Genomic effect of vitamin C and statins within human mononuclear cells involved in atherogenic process. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005; 59: 978981.
  • 37
    Kim JY, Kim DH, Choi J, Park JK, Jeong KS, Leeuwenburgh C, et al. Changes in lipid distribution during aging and its modulation by calorie restriction. Age (Dordr) 2009; 31: 127142.
  • 38
    Sastre M, Dewachter I, Rossner S, Bogdanovic N, Rosen E, Borghgraef P, et al. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs repress beta-secretase gene promoter activity by the activation of PPARgamma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006; 103: 443438.
  • 39
    Sung B, Park S, Yu BP, Chung HY. Amelioration of age-related inflammation and oxidative stress by PPARgamma activator: suppression of NF-kappaB by 2,4-thiazolidinedione. Exp Gerontol 2006; 41: 590599.
  • 40
    Coschigano KT, Holland AN, Riders ME, List EO, Flyvbjerg A, Kopchick JJ. Deletion, but not antagonism, of the mouse growth hormone receptor results in severely decreased body weights, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I levels and increased life span. Endocrinology 2003; 144: 37993810.
  • 41
    Guan YF, Zhang YH, Breyer RM, Davis L, Breyer MD. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) in human transitional bladder cancer and its role in inducing cell death. Neoplasia 1999; 4: 330339.
  • 42
    Lu M, Kwan T, Yu C, Chen F, Freedman B, Schafer JM, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists promote TRAIL-induced apoptosis by reducing survivin levels via cyclin D3 repression and cell cycle arrest. J Biol Chem 2005; 280: 67426751.
  • 43
    Gan Q, Huang J, Zhou R, Niu J, Zhu X, Wang J, et al. PPAR{gamma} accelerates cellular senescence by inducing p16INK4{alpha} expression in human diploid fibroblasts. J Cell Sci 2008; 121: 22352245.
  • 44
    Krizhanovsky V, Yon M, Dickins RA, Hearn S, Simon J, Miething C, et al. Senescence of activated stellate cells limits liver fibrosis. Cell 2008; 134: 657667.
  • 45
    Daynes RA, Jones DC. Emerging roles of PPARs in inflammation and immunity. Nat Rev Immunol 2002; 2: 748759.
  • 46
    Jiang C, Ting AT, Seed B. PPAR-gamma agonists inhibit production of monocyte inflammatory cytokines. Nature 1998; 391: 8286.