Potential conflict of interest: Nothing to report.
Importance of the compensatory anti-inflammatory response following severe sepsis on cirrhosis†
Article first published online: 28 JAN 2010
Copyright © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Volume 51, Issue 4, pages 1469–1470, April 2010
How to Cite
Berry, P. A., Antoniades, C. G. and Wendon, J. (2010), Importance of the compensatory anti-inflammatory response following severe sepsis on cirrhosis. Hepatology, 51: 1469–1470. doi: 10.1002/hep.23552
- Issue published online: 26 MAR 2010
- Article first published online: 28 JAN 2010
- Accepted manuscript online: 28 JAN 2010 12:00AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 5 JAN 2010
- Manuscript Received: 1 JAN 2010
To the Editor:
The recent review by Gustot et al.1 did not emphasize the important, common, and frequently lethal phase of illness that is immunoparesis, caused by the compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS). A term coined by Bone et al.,2 CARS describes prolonged elevations in anti-inflammatory mediators and immune dysregulation with defects in both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Studies in patients without cirrhosis have shown that the severity of this phase determines outcome beyond the initial “cytokine storm” associated with the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS).3, 4
In cirrhosis, it is common for patients to suffer repeated episodes of nosocomial sepsis following an initial episode of infection. Defects in both innate and adaptive5 arms of the immune response have been demonstrated, and there is increasing evidence that monitoring of monocyte function by assessing the expression of antigen presentation apparatus, such as human leukocyte antigen-DR is of prognostic value.6, 7 Early studies in the animal model of cirrhosis have determined that Toll-like receptor expression is up-regulated,8 predisposing the organism to an exaggerated SIRS, followed by an equally exaggerated and prolonged CARS. In the current era, when organ support strategies are capable of allowing patients to weather the “cytokine storm,” we believe further emphasis should be placed on this harmful sequel to severe sepsis.
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