• 1
    Poynard T, Bedossa P, Opolon P. Natural history of liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Lancet 1997; 349: 825-832.
  • 2
    Thomas DL, Thio CL, Martin MP, Qi Y, Ge D, O'Huigin C, et al. Genetic variation in IL28B and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus. Nature 2009; 461: 798-801.
  • 3
    Rauch A, Kutalik Z, Descombes P, Cai T, Iulio J, Mueller T, et al. Genetic variation in IL28β is associated with chronic hepatitis C and treatment failure: a genome wide association study. Gastroenterology 2010; 138: 1338-1345.
  • 4
    Wiese M, Grungreiff K, Guthoff W, Lafrenz M, Oesen U, Porst H. Outcome in a hepatitis C (genotype 1b) single source outbreak in Germany—a 25-year multicenter study. J Hepatol 2005; 43: 590-598.
  • 5
    Kenny-Walsh E. Clinical outcomes after hepatitis C infection from contaminated anti-D immune globulin. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 1228-1233.
  • 6
    Dore GJ, MacDonald M, Law MG, Kaldor JM. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection in Australia. Aust Fam Physician 2003; 32: 796-798.
  • 7
    Missale G, Bertoni R, Lamonaca V, Valli A, Massari M, Mori C, et al. Different clinical behaviors of acute hepatitis C virus infection are associated with different vigor of the anti-viral cell-mediated immune response. J Clin Invest 1996; 98: 706-714.
  • 8
    McKiernan SM, Hagan R, Curry M, McDonald GSA, Kelly A, Nolan N, et al. Distinct MHC class I and II alleles are associated with hepatitis C viral clearance, originating from a single source. Hepatology 2004; 40: 108-114.
  • 9
    Fanning LJ, Levis J, Kenny-Walsh E, Wynne F, Whelton M, Shanahan F. Viral clearance in hepatitis C (1b) infection: relationship with human leukocyte antigen class II in a homogeneous population. Hepatology 2000; 31: 1334-1337.
  • 10
    Barrett S, Ryan E, Crowe J. Association of the HLA-DRB1*01 allele with spontaneous viral clearance in an Irish cohort infected with hepatitis C virus via contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin. J Hepatol 1999; 30: 979-983.
  • 11
    Neumann-Haefelin C, McKiernan S, Ward S, Viazov S, Spangenberg HC, Killinger T, et al. Dominant influence of an HLA-B27 restricted CD8+ T cell response in mediating HCV clearance and evolution. Hepatology 2006; 43: 563-572.
  • 12
    Bowden DG, Walker CM. Mutational escape from CD8 cell immunity: HCV evolution, from chimpanzees to man. J Exp Med 2005; 201: 1709-1714.
  • 13
    Erickson AL, Kimura Y, Igarashi S, Eichelberger J, Houghton M, Sidney J, et al. The outcome of hepatitis C virus infection is predicted by escape mutations in epitopes targeted by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Immunity 2001; 15: 883-895.
  • 14
    Cox AL, Mosbruger T, Mao Q, Liu Z, Want XH, Yang HC, et al. Cellular immune selection with hepatitis C virus persistence in humans. J Exp Med 2005; 201: 1741-1742.
  • 15
    Salloum S, Oniangue-Ndza C, Neumann-Haefelin C, Hudson L, Giugliano S, Siepen MAD, et al. Escape from HLA-B*08-restricted CD8 T cells by hepatitis C virus is associated with fitness costs. J Virol 2008; 82: 11803-11812.
  • 16
    Cox AL, Mosbruger T, Lauer GM, Pardoll D, Thomas DL, Ray SC. Comprehensive analyses of CD8+ T cell responses during longitudinal study of acute human hepatitis C. Hepatology 2005; 42: 104-112.
  • 17
    Timm J, Lauer GM, Kavanagh DG, Sheridan I, Kim AY, Lucas M, et al. CD8 epitope escape and reversion in acute HCV infection. J Exp Med 2004; 200: 1593-1604.
  • 18
    Gaudieri S, Rauch A, Park LP, Freitas E, Herrmann S, Jeffrey G, et al. Evidence of viral adaptation to HLA class I-restricted immune pressure in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. J Virol 2006; 80: 11094-11104.
  • 19
    Rauch A, James I, Pfafferott K, Nolan D, Klenerman P, Cheng W, et al. Divergent adaptation of hepatitis C virus genotypes 1 and 3 to human leukocyte antigen-restricted immune pressure. Hepatology 2009; 50: 1017-1029.
  • 20
    Manzin A, Solforosi L, Debiaggi M, Zara F, Tanzi E, Romano L, et al. Dominant role of host selective pressure in driving hepatitis C virus evolution in perinatal infection. J Virol 2000; 74: 4327-4334.
  • 21
    Kuntzen T, Timm J, Berical A, Lewis-Ximenez LL, Jones A, Nolan B, et al. Viral sequence evolution in acute hepatitis C virus infection. J Virol 2007; 81: 11658-11668.
  • 22
    Ray SC, Fanning L, Wang XH, Netski DM, Kenny-Walsh E, Thomas DL. Divergent and convergent evolution after a common-source outbreak of hepatitis C virus. J Exp Med 2005; 201: 1753-1759.
  • 23
    Urban TJ, Thomas AJ, Bradrick B, Fellay J, Schuppan D, Cronin KD, et al. IL28 genotyping is associated with differential expression of intrahepatic interferon-stimulated genes in chronic hepatitis C patients. Hepatology 2010; 52.
  • 24
    Rammensee H, Bachmann J, Emmerich NN, Bachor OA, Stevanovic S. SYFPEITHI: database for MHC ligands and peptide motifs. Immunogenetics 1999; 50: 213-219.
  • 25
    Kumar S, Nei M, Dudley J, Tamura K. MEGA: a biologist-centric software for evolutionary analysis of DNA and protein sequences. Brief Bioinform 2008; 9: 299-306.
  • 26
    Campo DS, Dimitrova Z, Mitchell RJ, Lara J, Khudyakov Y. Coordinated evolution of the hepatitis C virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2008; 105: 9685-9690.
  • 27
    Giugliano S, Ruhl M, Neumann-Haefelin C, Wiese M, Thimme R, Roggendorf M, et al. Differences in the source sequence of two HCV genotype 1b outbreaks within immunodominant CD8 epitopes are associated with differential outcome. Paper presented at: 16th International Symposium on Hepatitis C and Related Viruses; October 2009; Nice, France.
  • 28
    Dazert E, Neumann-Haefelin C, Bressanelli S, Fitzmaurice K, Kort J, Timm J, et al. Loss of viral fitness and cross-recognition by CD8+T cells limit HCV escape from a protective HLA-B27-resticted immune response. J Clin Invest 2009; 119: 276-286.