• 1
    Blumberg BS, Alter HJ, Visnich S. A “new” antigen in leukemia sera. JAMA 1965; 191: 541-546.
  • 2
    Liaw YF, Chu CM. Hepatitis B virus infection. Lancet 2009; 373: 582-592.
  • 3
    Lok AS, McMahon BJ. Chronic hepatitis B: update 2009. HEPATOLOGY 2009; 50: 661-662.
  • 4
    Liaw YF, Leung N, Kao JH, Piratvisuth T, Gane E, Han KH, et al. Asian-Pacific consensus statement on the management of chronic hepatitis B: a 2008 update. Hepatol Int 2008; 2: 263-283.
  • 5
    European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines: management of cholestatic liver diseases, 08 June 2009. J Hepatol 2009; 51: 237-267.
  • 6
    Chu CM, Liaw YF. Hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance during chronic HBV infection. Antivir Ther 2010; 15: 133-143.
  • 7
    Nguyen T, Thompson AJ, Bowden S, Croagh C, Bell S, Desmond PV, et al. Hepatitis B surface antigen levels during the natural history of chronic hepatitis B: a perspective on Asia. J Hepatol 2010; 52: 508-513.
  • 8
    Thompson AJ, Nguyen T, Iser D, Ayres A, Jackson K, Littlejohn M, et al. Serum hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B e antigen titers: disease phase influences correlation with viral load and intrahepatic hepatitis B virus markers. HEPATOLOGY 2010; 51: 1933-1944.
  • 9
    Seeger C, Mason WS. Hepatitis B virus biology. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2000; 64: 51-68.
  • 10
    Chan HL, Wong VW, Wong GL, Tse CH, Chan HY, Sung JJ. A longitudinal study on the natural history of serum hepatitis B surface antigen changes in chronic hepatitis B. HEPATOLOGY 2010; 52: 1232-1241.
  • 11
    Werle-Lapostolle B, Bowden S, Locarnini S, Wursthorn K, Petersen J, Lau G, et al. Persistence of cccDNA during the natural history of chronic hepatitis B and decline during adefovir dipivoxil therapy. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: 1750-1758.
  • 12
    Volz T, Lutgehetmann M, Wachtler P, Jacob A, Quaas A, Murray JM, et al. Impaired intrahepatic hepatitis B virus productivity contributes to low viremia in most HBeAg-negative patients. Gastroenterology 2007; 133: 843-852.
  • 13
    Chan HL, Wong VW, Tse AM, Tse CH, Chim AM, Chan HY, et al. Serum hepatitis B surface antigen quantitation can reflect hepatitis B virus in the liver and predict treatment response. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007; 5: 1462-1468.
  • 14
    Brunetto MR. A new role for an old marker, HBsAg. J Hepatol 2010; 52: 475-477.
  • 15
    Jaroszewicz J, Calle Serrano B, Wursthorn K, Deterding K, Schlue J, Raupach R, et al. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels in the natural history of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infection: a European perspective. J Hepatol 2010; 52: 514-522.
  • 16
    Brunetto MR, Oliveri F, Colombatto P, Moriconi F, Ciccorossi P, Coco B, et al. Hepatitis B surface antigen serum levels help to distinguish active from inactive hepatitis B virus genotype D carriers. Gastroenterology 2010; 139: 483-490.
  • 17
    Martinot-Peignoux M, Lada O, Cardoso A-C, Lapalus M, Boyer N, Ripault MP, et al. Quantitative HBsAg: a new specific marker for the diagnosis of HBsAg inactive carriage [Abstract]. HEPATOLOGY 2010; 52: 992A.
  • 18
    Chen CH, Lee CM, Wang JH, Tung HD, Hung CH, Lu SN. Correlation of quantitative assay of hepatitis B surface antigen and HBV DNA levels in asymptomatic hepatitis B virus carriers. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004; 16: 1213-1218.
  • 19
    Manesis EK, Papatheodoridis GV, Hadziyannis E. Significance of serum HBsAg levels for the definition of the inactive hepatitis B carrier state [Abstract]. HEPATOLOGY 2010; 52( Suppl): 560A.
  • 20
    McMahon BJ. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg): a 40-year-old hepatitis B virus seromarker gets new life. Gastroenterology 2010; 139: 380-382.
  • 21
    Janssen HL, Kerhof-Los CJ, Heijtink RA, Schalm SW. Measurement of HBsAg to monitor hepatitis B viral replication in patients on alpha-interferon therapy. Antiviral Res 1994; 23: 251-257.
  • 22
    Manesis EK, Schina M, Le Gal F, Agelopoulou O, Papaioannou C, Kalligeros C, et al. Quantitative analysis of hepatitis D virus RNA and hepatitis B surface antigen serum levels in chronic delta hepatitis improves treatment monitoring. Antivir Ther 2007; 12: 381-388.
  • 23
    Manesis EK, Hadziyannis ES, Angelopoulou OP, Hadziyannis SJ. Prediction of treatment-related HBsAg loss in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B: a clue from serum HBsAg levels. Antivir Ther 2007; 12: 73-82.
  • 24
    Wiegand J, Wedemeyer H, Finger A, Heidrich B, Rosenau J, Michel G, et al. A decline in hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) predicts clearance, but does not correlate with quantitative HBeAg or HBV DNA levels. Antivir Ther 2008; 13: 547-554.
  • 25
    Lau GK, Marcellin P, Brunetto M, Piratvisuth T, Kapprell H-P, Button P, et al. On-treatment HBsAg decline during peginterferon alfa-2a (40kD) ± lamivudine in patients with HBsAg-positive CHB as a potential predictor of durable off-treatment response [Abstract]. HEPATOLOGY 2008; 48( Suppl): 714A.
  • 26
    Sonneveld MJ, Rijckborst V, Boucher CA, Hansen BE, Janssen HL. Prediction of sustained response to peginterferon alfa-2b for hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B using on-treatment hepatitis B surface antigen decline. HEPATOLOGY 2010; 52: 1251-1257.
  • 27
    Marcellin P, Avila C, Wursthorn K, Chuang W-L, Lau GK, Peng C-Y, et al. Telbivudine (LdT) plus peg-interferon (pegIFN) in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B—very potent antiviral efficacy but risk of peripheral neuropathy (PN). J Hepatol 2010; 52( Suppl 1): S6-S7.
  • 28
    Jung YK, Kim JH, Lee YS, Lee HJ, Yoon E, Jung ES, et al. Change in serum hepatitis B surface antigen level and its clinical significance in treatment-naïve, hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients receiving entecavir. J Clin Gastroenterol 2010; 44: 653-657.
  • 29
    Reijnders JGP, Rijckborst V, Sonneveld MJ, Scherbeijn SMJ, Boucher CAB, Hansen BE, et al. Kinetics of hepatitis B surface antigen differ between treatment with peginterferon and entecavir. J Hepatol 2011; 54: 449-454.
  • 30
    Wursthorn K, Jung M, Riva A, Goodman ZD, Lopez P, Bao W, et al. Kinetics of hepatitis B surface antigen decline during 3 years of telbivudine treatment in hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients. HEPATOLOGY 2010; 52: 1611-1620.
  • 31
    Gane E, Heathcote EJ, Marcellin P, Dusheiko G, Jacobson I, de Man R, et al. HBsAg kinetics of decay and baseline characteristics of HBsAg-positive patients with chronic hepatitis B following 3 years of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) treatment. J Hepatol 2010; 52( Suppl 1): S388.
  • 32
    Brunetto MR, Moriconi F, Bonino F, Lau GKK, Farci P, Yurdaydin C, et al. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen levels: a guide to sustained response to peginterferon alfa-2a in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B. HEPATOLOGY 2009; 49: 1141-1150.
  • 33
    Marcellin P, Piratvisuth T, Brunetto, Bonino F, Farci P, Yurdaydin C, et al. On-treatment decline in serum HBsAg levels predicts sustained immune control 1 year post-treatment and subsequent HBsAg clearance in HBsAg-negative hepatitis B virus-infected patients treated with peginterferon alfa [40kD] (PEGASYS). Hepatol Int 2010; 4: 151.
  • 34
    Rijckborst V, ter Borg MJ, Cakaloglu Y, Ferenci P, Tabak F, Akdogan M, et al. A randomized trial of peginterferon alpha-2a with or without ribavirin for HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B. Am J Gastroenterol 2010; 105: 1762-1769.
  • 35
    Chan HL, Wong VW, Chim AM, Chan HY, Wong GL, Sung JJ. Serum HBsAg quantification to predict response to peginterferon therapy of e antigen positive chronic hepatitis B. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 32: 1323-1331.
  • 36
    Ma H, Yang RF, Wei L. Quantitative serum HBsAg and HBeAg are strong predictors of sustained HBeAg seroconversion to pegylated interferon alfa-2b in HBeAg-positive patients. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 25: 1498-1506.
  • 37
    Piratvisuth T, Lau GKK, Marcelliin P, Brunetto M, Kapprell HP, Popescu M. On-treatment decline in serum HBsAg levels predicts sustained immune control and HBsAg clearance 6 month post-treatment in HBsAg-positive hepatitis B virus-infected patients treated with peginterferon alfa-2a [40kD] (PEGASYS). Hepatol Int 2010; 4: 152.
  • 38
    Moucari R, Mackiewicz V, Lada O, Ripault MP, Castelnau C, Martinot-Peignoux M, et al. Early serum HBsAg drop: a strong predictor of sustained virological response to pegylated interferon alfa-2a in HBeAg-negative patients. HEPATOLOGY 2009; 49: 1151-1157.
  • 39
    Rijckborst V, Hansen BE, Cakaloglu Y, Ferenci P, Tabak F, Akdogan M, et al. Early on-treatment prediction of response to peginterferon alfa-2a for HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B using HBsAg and HBV DNA levels. HEPATOLOGY 2010; 52: 454-461.
  • 40
    Moucari R, Martinot-Peignoux M, Mackiewicz V, Boyr N, Ripault MP, Castelnau C, et al. Influence of genotype on hepatitis B surface antigen kinetics in hepatitis B e antigen-negative patients treated with pegylated interferon-alpha2a. Antivir Ther 2009; 14: 1183-1188.
  • 41
    Piratvisuth T, Marcellin P. Further analysis is required to identify an early stopping rule for peginterferon therapy that is valid for all HBeAg-positive patients. HEPATOLOGY 2011; 53: 1054-1055.
  • 42
    Rijckborst V, Hansen B, Ferenci P, Brunetto MR, Tabak F, Cakaloglu Y, et al. Early on-treatment HBsAg and HBV DNA levels identify HBeAg-negative patients not responding to 48 or 96 weeks of peginterferon alfa-2a therapy [Abstract]. HEPATOLOGY 2010; 52: 557A.
  • 43
    Yu ML, Lee CM, Chuang WL, Lu SN, Dai CY, Huang JF, et al. HBsAg profiles in patients receiving peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for the treatment of dual chronic infection with hepatitis B and C viruses. J Infect Dis 2010; 202: 86-92.
  • 44
    Heathcote EJ, Marcellin P, Buti M, Gane E, de Man RA, Karastev Z, et al. Three-year efficacy and safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate treatment for chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology 2011; 140: 132-143.
  • 45
    Gish RG, Chang TT, Lai CL, de Man R, Gadano A, Poordad F, et al. Loss of HBsAg antigen during treatment with entecavir or lamivudine in nucleoside-naïve HBeAg-positive patients with chronic hepatitis B. J Viral Hepat 2010; 17: 16-22.
  • 46
    Liaw Y-F, Wursthorn K, Thongsawat S, Zhou X-Q, Hwang SG, Chutaputti A, et al. Telbivudine-induced HBeAg seroconversion in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is durable during 2 years off-treatment follow-up. J Hepatol 2010; 52( Suppl 1): S391.
  • 47
    Cai W, Xie Q, An B, Wang H, Zhou X, Zhao G, et al. On-treatment serum HBsAg level is predictive of sustained off-treatment virologic response to telbivudine in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients. J Clin Virol 2010; 48: 22-26.
  • 48
    Martinot-Peignoux M, Lapalus M, Lada O, Aselah T, Marcellin P. Elecsys HBsAg II assay for the quantification of serum HBsAg and prediction of treatment outcome. Hepatol Int 2011; 5: 77.
  • 49
    Bonino F, Moriconi F, Bowden S, Hammond R, Brunetto M, Louisirirotchanakul S, et al. Multicenter evaluation of the Elecsys HBsAg II Quant assay. Hepatol Int 2011; 5: 80.
  • 50
    Perrillo RP. Hepatitis B surface antigen quantification as a current-day paradox: obtaining the gold in the face of diminishing returns. HEPATOLOGY 2009; 49: 1063-1065.