• 1
    El-Serag HB, Rudolph KL. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and molecular carcinogenesis. Gastroenterology 2007; 132: 2557-2576.
  • 2
    Aravalli RN, Steer CJ, Cressman EN. Molecular mechanisms of hepatocellular carcinoma. HEPATOLOGY 2008; 48: 2047-2063.
  • 3
    Bacac M, Stamenkovic I. Metastatic cancer cell. Annu Rev Pathol 2008; 3: 221-247.
  • 4
    Ge H, Yang G, Yu X, Pourbahrami T, Li C. Oligomerization state-dependent hyperlipidemic effect of angiopoietin-like protein 4. J Lipid Res 2004; 45: 2071-2079.
  • 5
    Sukonina V, Lookene A, Olivecrona T, Olivecrona G. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 converts lipoprotein lipase to inactive monomers and modulates lipase activity in adipose tissue. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006; 103: 17450-17455.
  • 6
    Xu A, Lam MC, Chan KW, Wang Y, Zhang J, Hoo RL, et al. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 decreases blood glucose and improves glucose tolerance but induces hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005; 102: 6086-6091.
  • 7
    Li C. Genetics and regulation of angiopoietin-like proteins 3 and 4. Curr Opin Lipidol 2006; 17: 152-156.
  • 8
    Maisonpierre PC, Suri C, Jones PF, Bartunkova S, Wiegand SJ, Radziejewski C, et al. Angiopoietin-2, a natural antagonist for Tie2 that disrupts in vivo angiogenesis. Science 1997; 277: 55-60.
  • 9
    Camenisch G, Pisabarro MT, Sherman D, Kowalski J, Nagel M, Hass P, et al. ANGPTL3 stimulates endothelial cell adhesion and migration via integrin alpha vbeta 3 and induces blood vessel formation in vivo. J Biol Chem 2002; 277: 17281-17290.
  • 10
    Kubota Y, Oike Y, Satoh S, Tabata Y, Niikura Y, Morisada T, et al. Cooperative interaction of angiopoietin-like proteins 1 and 2 in zebrafish vascular development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005; 102: 13502-13507.
  • 11
    Hermann LM, Pinkerton M, Jennings K, Yang L, Grom A, Sowders D, et al. Angiopoietin-like-4 is a potential angiogenic mediator in arthritis. Clin Immunol 2005; 115: 93-101.
  • 12
    Kim I, Moon SO, Koh KN, Kim H, Uhm CS, Kwak HJ, et al. Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of angiopoietin-related protein. angiopoietin-related protein induces endothelial cell sprouting. J Biol Chem 1999; 274: 26523-26528.
  • 13
    Le Jan S, Amy C, Cazes A, Monnot C, Lamande N, Favier J, et al. Angiopoietin-like 4 is a proangiogenic factor produced during ischemia and in conventional renal cell carcinoma. Am J Pathol 2003; 162: 1521-1528.
  • 14
    Tian L, Zhou J, Casimiro MC, Liang B, Ojeifo JO, Wang M, et al. Activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma mutant promotes tumor growth in vivo by enhancing angiogenesis. Cancer Res 2009; 69: 9236-9244.
  • 15
    Cazes A, Galaup A, Chomel C, Bignon M, Brechot N, Le Jan S, et al. Extracellular matrix-bound angiopoietin-like 4 inhibits endothelial cell adhesion, migration, and sprouting and alters actin cytoskeleton. Circ Res 2006; 99: 1207-1215.
  • 16
    Ito Y, Oike Y, Yasunaga K, Hamada K, Miyata K, Matsumoto S, et al. Inhibition of angiogenesis and vascular leakiness by angiopoietin-related protein 4. Cancer Res 2003; 63: 6651-6657.
  • 17
    Yang YH, Wang Y, Lam KS, Yau MH, Cheng KK, Zhang J, et al. Suppression of the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascade and inhibition of angiogenesis by the carboxyl terminus of angiopoietin-like protein 4. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2008; 28: 835-840.
  • 18
    Galaup A, Cazes A, Le Jan S, Philippe J, Connault E, Le Coz E, et al. Angiopoietin-like 4 prevents metastasis through inhibition of vascular permeability and tumor cell motility and invasiveness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006; 103: 18721-18726.
  • 19
    Padua D, Zhang XH, Wang Q, Nadal C, Gerald WL, Gomis RR, et al. TGFbeta primes breast tumors for lung metastasis seeding through angiopoietin-like 4. Cell 2008; 133: 66-77.
  • 20
    Ma T, Jham BC, Hu J, Friedman ER, Basile JR, Molinolo A, et al. Viral G protein-coupled receptor up-regulates angiopoietin-like 4 promoting angiogenesis and vascular permeability in Kaposi's sarcoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010; 107: 14363-14368.
  • 21
    Nakayama T, Hirakawa H, Shibata K, Abe K, Nagayasu T, Taguchi T. Expression of angiopoietin-like 4 in human gastric cancer: ANGPTL4 promotes venous invasion. Oncol Rep 2010; 24: 599-606.
  • 22
    Nakayama T, Hirakawa H, Shibata K, Nazneen A, Abe K, Nagayasu T, et al. Expression of angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) in human colorectal cancer: ANGPTL4 promotes venous invasion and distant metastasis. Oncol Rep 2011; 25: 929-935.
  • 23
    Shibata K, Nakayama T, Hirakawa H, Hidaka S, Nagayasu T. Clinicopathological significance of angiopoietin-like protein 4 expression in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. J Clin Pathol 2010; 63: 1054-1058
  • 24
    Sullivan R, Graham CH. Hypoxia-driven selection of the metastatic phenotype. Cancer Metast Rev 2007; 26: 319-331.
  • 25
    Simon F, Bockhorn M, Praha C, Baba HA, Broelsch CE, Frilling A, et al. Deregulation of HIF1-alpha and hypoxia-regulated pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma and corresponding non-malignant liver tissue--influence of a modulated host stroma on the prognosis of HCC. Langenbecks Arch Surg 2010; 395: 395-405.
  • 26
    Xie H, Song J, Liu K, Ji H, Shen H, Hu S, et al. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma: correlation with patients' prognosis and hepatitis B virus X protein. Digest Dis Sci 2008; 53: 3225-3233.
  • 27
    Murata M, Yudo K, Nakamura H, Chiba J, Okamoto K, Suematsu N, et al. Hypoxia upregulates the expression of angiopoietin-like-4 in human articular chondrocytes: role of angiopoietin-like-4 in the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and cartilage degradation. J Orthop Res 2009; 27: 50-57.
  • 28
    Le Jan S, Le Meur N, Cazes A, Philippe J, Le Cunff M, Leger J, et al. Characterization of the expression of the hypoxia-induced genes neuritin, TXNIP, and IGFBP3 in cancer. FEBS Lett 2006; 580: 3395-3400.
  • 29
    Belanger AJ, Lu H, Date T, Liu LX, Vincent KA, Akita GY, et al. Hypoxia up-regulates expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma angiopoietin-related gene (PGAR) in cardiomyocytes: role of hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha. J Mol Cell Cardiol 2002; 34: 765-774.
  • 30
    Lal A, Peters H, St Croix B, Haroon ZA, Dewhirst MW, Strausberg RL, et al. Transcriptional response to hypoxia in human tumors. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001; 93: 1337-1343.
  • 31
    Zhu H, Li J, Qin W, Yang Y, He X, Wan D, et al. Cloning of a novel gene, ANGPTL4, and the functional study in angiogenesis. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2002; 82: 94-99.
  • 32
    Mabjeesh NJ, Escuin D, LaVallee TM, Pribluda VS, Swartz GM, Johnson MS, et al. 2ME2 inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis by disrupting microtubules and dysregulating HIF. Cancer Cell 2003; 3: 363-375.
  • 33
    Voss MJ, Niggemann B, Zanker KS, Entschladen F. Tumour reactions to hypoxia. Curr Mol Med 2010; 10: 381-386.
  • 34
    Lu B, Moser A, Shigenaga JK, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. The acute phase response stimulates the expression of angiopoietin like protein 4. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2010; 391: 1737-1741.
  • 35
    Shu HB, Agranoff AB, Nabel EG, Leung K, Duckett CS, Neish AS, et al. Differential regulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 gene expression by specific NF-kappa B subunits in endothelial and epithelial cells. Mol Cell Biol 1993; 13: 6283-6289.
  • 36
    Tu Z, Kelley VR, Collins T, Lee FS. I kappa B kinase is critical for TNF-alpha-induced VCAM1 gene expression in renal tubular epithelial cells. J Immunol 2001; 166: 6839-6846.
  • 37
    Abe M, Hiura K, Ozaki S, Kido S, Matsumoto T. Vicious cycle between myeloma cell binding to bone marrow stromal cells via VLA-4-VCAM-1 adhesion and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha and MIP-1beta production. J Bone Miner Metab 2009; 27: 16-23.
  • 38
    Garmy-Susini B, Jin H, Zhu Y, Sung RJ, Hwang R, Varner J. Integrin alpha4beta1-VCAM-1-mediated adhesion between endothelial and mural cells is required for blood vessel maturation. J Clin Invest 2005; 115: 1542-1551.
  • 39
    Papadimitriou MN, Menter DG, Konstantopoulos K, Nicolson GL, McIntire LV. Integrin alpha4beta1/VCAM-1 pathway mediates primary adhesion of RAW117 lymphoma cells to hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells under flow. Clin Exp Metast 1999; 17: 669-676.
  • 40
    Kaibori M, Ishizaki M, Saito T, Matsui K, Kwon AH, Kamiyama Y. Risk factors and outcome of early recurrence after resection of small hepatocellular carcinomas. Am J Surg 2009; 198: 39-45.
  • 41
    Nakashima O, Kojiro M. Recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma: multicentric occurrence or intrahepatic metastasis? A viewpoint in terms of pathology. J Hepatobil Pancreat Surg 2001; 8: 404-409.
  • 42
    Goh YY, Pal M, Chong HC, Zhu P, Tan MJ, Punugu L, et al. Angiopoietin-like 4 interacts with integrins {beta}1 and {beta}5 to modulate keratinocyte migration. Am J Pathol 2010; 177: 1-13.
  • 43
    Goh YY, Pal M, Chong HC, Zhu P, Tan MJ, Punugu L, et al. Angiopoietin-like 4 interacts with matrix proteins to modulate wound healing. J Biol Chem 2010; 285: 32999-33009.
  • 44
    Chomel C, Cazes A, Faye C, Bignon M, Gomez E, Ardidie-Robouant C, et al. Interaction of the coiled-coil domain with glycosaminoglycans protects angiopoietin-like 4 from proteolysis and regulates its antiangiogenic activity. FASEB J 2009; 23: 940-949.
  • 45
    Arvelo F, Cotte C. [Hypoxia in cancer malignity. Review]. [in Spanish]. Invest Clin 2009; 50: 529-546.
  • 46
    Budhu A, Forgues M, Ye QH, Jia HL, He P, Zanetti KA, et al. Prediction of venous metastases, recurrence, and prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma based on a unique immune response signature of the liver microenvironment. Cancer Cell 2006; 10: 99-111.
  • 47
    Bierie B, Moses HL. Tumour microenvironment: TGFbeta: the molecular Jekyll and Hyde of cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 2006; 6: 506-520.
  • 48
    Yap SF, Peh SC. Alpha-fetoprotein in hepatocellular carcinoma: a serological and histochemical study in Malaysian patients. Malays J Pathol 1991; 13: 115-118.
  • 49
    Wu XZ, Xie GR, Chen D. Hypoxia and hepatocellular carcinoma: the therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007; 22: 1178-1182.