Article first published online: 31 AUG 2011
Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Volume 54, Issue 4, pages 1167–1178, October 2011
How to Cite
Younossi, Z. M. and Stepanova, M. (2011), Changes in hepatitis A and B vaccination rates in adult patients with chronic liver diseases and diabetes in the U.S. population. Hepatology, 54: 1167–1178. doi: 10.1002/hep.24510
Potential conflict of interest: Dr. Younossi is a consultant for and advises Salix. He also advises Vertex and Tibotec.
This study has been supported, in part, by the Liver Disease Outcomes Fund of the Center for Liver Diseases at Inova Fairfax Hospital, Inova Health System, Falls Church, VA.
- Issue published online: 27 SEP 2011
- Article first published online: 31 AUG 2011
- Accepted manuscript online: 2 JUL 2011 03:33PM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 17 JUN 2011
- Manuscript Received: 4 MAR 2011
Professional societies recommend hepatitis A and hepatitis B immunization for individuals with chronic liver disease (CLD), but the degree of implementation is unknown. Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted in 1999-2008. For the entire study population and for those with CLD and diabetes, we determined the rates and independent predictors of history of hepatitis A and hepatitis B (HepA and HepB) vaccinations, of their effectiveness, and of seroprevalence of hepatitis A antibody and anti-HB surface antibody. In total, 24,871 participants from NHANES were included: 14,886 (1999-2004) and 9,985 (2005-2008). Of these individuals, 14.0% had CLD and 8.6% had diabetes. During the study period, HepA vaccination in CLD increased from 13.3% ± 1.0% to 20.0% ± 1.5%, HepB vaccination increased from 23.4% ± 1.2% to 32.1% ± 1.5%. Of subtypes of CLD, HepA vaccination rates increased only in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), whereas HepB vaccination increased for patients with hepatitis C and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In the diabetic cohort, HepA vaccination rates increased from 9.3% ± 1.1% to 15.4% ± 1.7% and HepB rates increased from 15.2% ± 1.5% to 22.4% ± 1.7%. All changes were similar to those observed in the general population. The quality measure (QM) for HepA in the general population decreased from 44.4% ± 1.2% in 1999-2004 to 41.7% ± 1.9% in 2005-2008, and similar changes were noted for all subcohorts. On the other hand, QM for HepB increased from 31.7% ± 0.9% to 40.7% ± 1.0% in the population, whereas no changes in QM were noted in any diagnostic cohort except for NAFLD. Conclusions: Although vaccination rates in CLD and diabetic cohorts are increasing, they remain low. Given the public health implications of acute hepatitis A and hepatitis B in patients with CLD, better implementation of the vaccination recommendations for these populations is warranted. (HEPATOLOGY 2011)