These authors contributed equally to the work.
Article first published online: 28 OCT 2011
Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Volume 54, Issue 5, pages 1570–1579, November 2011
How to Cite
Gal-Tanamy, M., Bachmetov, L., Ravid, A., Koren, R., Erman, A., Tur-Kaspa, R. and Zemel, R. (2011), Vitamin D: An innate antiviral agent suppressing hepatitis C virus in human hepatocytes. Hepatology, 54: 1570–1579. doi: 10.1002/hep.24575
Potential conflict of interest: Nothing to report.
Supported in part by the Caesarea Edmond Benjamin De Rothschild Foundation, Israel (RTK, RZ), and by the Cesarman Chair for Research in Liver Diseases, Tel Aviv University incumbent, Ran Tur-Kaspa. M.G-T. is the recipient of a returning researchers grant, the Science Absorption Center, Ministry of Immigration, Israel.
- Issue published online: 28 OCT 2011
- Article first published online: 28 OCT 2011
- Accepted manuscript online: 25 JUL 2011 08:43AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 13 JUL 2011
- Manuscript Received: 8 MAY 2011
Vitamin D supplementation was reported to improve the probability of achieving a sustained virological response when combined with antiviral treatment against hepatitis C virus (HCV). Our aim was to determine the in vitro potential of vitamin D to inhibit HCV infectious virus production and explore the mechanism(s) of inhibition. Here we show that vitamin D3 remarkably inhibits HCV production in Huh7.5 hepatoma cells. These cells express CYP27B1, the gene encoding for the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the vitamin D hormonally active metabolite, calcitriol. Treatment with vitamin D3 resulted in calcitriol production and induction of calcitriol target gene CYP24A1, indicating that these cells contain the full machinery for vitamin D metabolism and activity. Notably, treatment with calcitriol resulted in HCV inhibition. Collectively, these findings suggest that vitamin D3 has an antiviral activity which is mediated by its active metabolite. This antiviral activity involves the induction of the interferon signaling pathway, resulting in expression of interferon-β and the interferon-stimulated gene, MxA. Intriguingly, HCV infection increased calcitriol production by inhibiting CYP24A1 induction, the enzyme responsible for the first step in calcitriol catabolism. Importantly, the combination of vitamin D3 or calcitriol and interferon-α synergistically inhibited viral production. Conclusion: This study demonstrates for the first time a direct antiviral effect of vitamin D in an in vitro infectious virus production system. It proposes an interplay between the hepatic vitamin D endocrine system and HCV, suggesting that vitamin D has a role as a natural antiviral mediator. Importantly, our study implies that vitamin D might have an interferon-sparing effect, thus improving antiviral treatment of HCV-infected patients. (HEPATOLOGY 2011;)