SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Kaplan MM, Gershwin ME. Primary biliary cirrhosis. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 1261-1273.
  • 2
    Hirschfield GM, Liu X, Xu C, Lu Y, Xie G, Lu Y, et al. Primary biliary cirrhosis associated with HLA, IL 12A, and IL 12RB2 variants. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 2544-2555.
  • 3
    Prince MI, Ducker SJ, James OF. Case-control studies of risk factors for primary biliary cirrhosis in two United Kingdom populations. Gut 2010; 59: 508-512.
  • 4
    Selmi C, Gershwin ME. The role of environmental factors in primary biliary cirrhosis. Trends Immunol 2009; 30: 415-420.
  • 5
    McNally RJ, Ducker S, James OF. Are transient environmental agents involved in the cause of primary biliary cirrhosis? Evidence from space-time clustering analysis. HEPATOLOGY 2009; 50: 1169-1174.
  • 6
    Butler P, Valle F, Hamilton-Miller JM, Brumfitt W, Baum H, Burroughs AK. M2 mitochondrial antibodies and urinary rough mutant bacteria in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and in patients with recurrent bacteriuria. J Hepatol 1993; 17: 408-414.
  • 7
    Selmi C, Balkwill DL, Invernizzi P, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Podda M, et al. Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis react against a ubiquitous xenobiotic-matabolizing bacterium. HEPATOLOGY 2003; 38: 1250-1257.
  • 8
    Xu L, Shen Z, Guo L, Fodera B, Keogh A, Joplin R, et al. Does a betaretrovirus infection trigger primary biliary cirrhosis? Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003; 100: 8454-8459.
  • 9
    Haydon GH, Neuberger J. PBC: an infectious disease. Gut 2000; 47: 586-588.
  • 10
    Hamlyn AN, Macklon AF, James O. Primary biliary cirrhosis: geographical clustering and symptomatic onset seasonality. Gut 1983; 24: 940-945.
  • 11
    James OF, Bhopal R, Howel D, Gray J, Burt AD, Metcalf JV. Primary biliary cirrhosis once rare, now common in the United Kingdom? HEPATOLOGY 1999; 30: 390-394.
  • 12
    Office for National Statistics. 2001 census: small area statistics and local base statistics [computer file]. ESRC/JISC Census Programme, Census Dissemination Unit, MIMAS, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK, 2001.
  • 13
    Metcalf JV, Bhopal RS, Gray J, Howel D, James OF. Incidence and prevalence of primary biliary cirrhosis in the city of Newcastle upon Tyne, England. Int J Epidemiol 1997; 26: 830-836.
  • 14
    Stolwijk AM, Straatman H, Zielhuis GA. Studying seasonality by using sine and cosine functions in regression analysis. J Epidemiol Community Health 1999; 53: 235-238.
  • 15
    Pearson K. On the criterion that a given system of deviations from the probable in the case of correlated system of variables is such that it can be reasonably supposed to have arisen from random sampling. Philosop Mag 1900; 50: 157-175.
  • 16
    Office of Population Censuses and Surveys Census Division, General Register Office (Scotland) Census Branch. 1981 census small area statistics: 100% population and households aggregated to ward level (Great Britain) [computer file]. Colchester, Essex, UK: UK Data Archive [distributor] SN, 1893, 1983.
  • 17
    Office for National Statistics. 1991 census: small area statistics and local base statistics [computer file]. ESRC/JISC Census Programme, Census Dissemination Unit, MIMAS, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK, 1991.
  • 18
    Gershwin ME, Selmi C, Worman HJ, Gold EB, Watnik M, Utts J, et al. Risk factors and comorbidities in primary biliary cirrhosis: a controlled interview-based study of 1032 patients. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42: 1194-1202.
  • 19
    Butler P, Hamilton-Miller J, Baum H, Burroughs AK. Detection of M2 antibodies in patients with recurrent urinary tract infection using an ELISA and purified PBC specific antigens. Evidence for a molecular mimicry mechanism in the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis? Biochem Mol Biol Int 1995; 35: 473-485.
  • 20
    Tsuneyama K, Harada K, Kono N, Hiramatsu K, Zen Y, Sudo Y, et al. Scavenger cells with gram-positive bacterial lipoteichoic acid infiltrate around the damaged interlobular bile ducts of primary biliary cirrhosis. J Hepatol 2001; 35: 156-163.
  • 21
    Shimoda S, Nakamura M, Shigematsu H, Tanimoto H, Gushima T, Gershwin ME, et al. Mimicry peptides of human PDC-E2 163-176 peptide, the immunodominant T-cell epitope of primary biliary cirrhosis. HEPATOLOGY 2000; 31: 1212-1216.
  • 22
    Padgett KA, Selmi C, Kenny TP, Leung PS, Balkwill DL, Ansari AA, et al. Phylogenetic and immunological definition of four lipoylated proteins from Novosphingobium aromaticivorans, implications for primary biliary cirrhosis. J Autoimmun 2005; 24: 209-219.
  • 23
    Mattner J, Savage PB, Leung P, Oertelt SS, Wang V, Trivedi O, et al. Liver autoimmunity triggered by microbial activation of natural killer T cells. Cell Host Microbe 2008; 3: 304-315.
  • 24
    Kaplan MM. Novosphingobium aromaticivorans: a potential initiator of primary biliary cirrhosis. Am J Gastroenterol 2004; 99: 2147-2149.
    Direct Link:
  • 25
    Olafsson S, Gudjonsson H, Selmi C, Amano K, Invernizzi P, Podda M, et al. Antimitochondrial antibodies and reactivity to N. aromaticivorans proteins in Icelandic patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and their relatives. Am J Gastroenterol 2004; 99: 2143-2146.
    Direct Link:
  • 26
    Dronamraju D, Odin J, Bach N. Primary biliary cirrhosis: environmental risk factors. Dis Markers 2010; 29: 323-328.
  • 27
    Zabiegala B, Urbanowicz M, Namiesnik J, Gorecki T. Spatial and seasonal patterns of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes in the Gdansk, Poland and surrounding areas determined using radiello passive samplers. J Environ Qual 2010; 39: 896-906.
  • 28
    Tiwari V, Hanai Y, Masunaga S. Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the vicinity of petrochemical industrial area of Yokohama, Japan. Air Qual Atmos Health 2010; 3: 65-75.