• 1
    Stepanova M, Rafiq N, Younossi ZM. Components of metabolic syndrome are independent predictors of mortality in patients with chronic liver disease: a population-based study. Gut 2010; 59: 1410-1415.
  • 2
    Younossi ZM, Stepanova M, Afendy M, Fang Y, Younossi Y, Mir H, Srishord M. Changes in the prevalence of the most common causes of chronic liver diseases in the United States from 1988 to 2008. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011; 9: 524-530.
  • 3
    Younossi ZM, Stepanova M, Negro F, Hallaji S, Younossi Y, Lam B, Srishord M. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in lean individuals: data from the U.S. population [Abstract 1646]. Hepatology 2011; 54( Suppl): 1139A.
  • 4
    Rewers M, Zaccaro D, D'Agostino R, Haffner S, Saad MF, Selby JV, et al.; for the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study Investigators. Insulin sensitivity, insulinemia, and coronary artery disease. The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 781-787.
  • 5
    Bonora E, Kiechl S, Willett J, Oberhollenzer F, Egger G, Meigs JB, et al. Insulin resistance as estimated by homeostasis model assessment predicts incident symptomatic cardiovascular disease in Caucasian subjects from the general population. The Bruneck Study. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 318-324.
  • 6
    Bonora E, Formentini G, Calcaterra F, Lombardi S, Marini F, Zenari L, et al. HOMA-estimated insulin resistance is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic subjects. Prospective data from the Verona Diabetes Complications Study. Diabetes Care 2002; 25: 1135-1141.
  • 7
    Dekker JM, Girman C, Rhodes T, Nijpels G, Stehouwer CDA, Bouter LM, Heine RJ. Metabolic syndrome and the 10-year cardiovascular disease risk in the Hoorn Study. Circulation 2005; 112: 666-673.
  • 8
    Smiley T, Oh P, Shane LG. The relationship of insulin resistance measured by reliable indexes to coronary artery disease risk factors and outcomes—a systematic review. Can J Cardiol 2001; 17: 797-805.
  • 9
    Shinohara K, Shoji T, Emoto M, Tahara H, Koyama H, Ishimura E, et al. Insulin resistance as an independent predictor of cardiovascular moratlity in patients with end-stage renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13: 1894-1900.
  • 10
    Ausk KJ, Boyko EJ, Ioannou GN. Insulin resistance predicts mortality in nondiabetic individuals in the U.S. Diabetes Care 2010; 33: 1179-1185.
  • 11
    Andre P, Balkau B, Vol S, Charles MA, Eschwege E; DESIR Study Group. Gamma-glutamyltransferase activity and development of the metabolic syndrome (International Diabetes Federation definition) in the middle-aged men and women: data from the Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) cohort. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 2355-2361.
  • 12
    Perry IJ, Wannamethe SG, Shaper AG. Prospective study of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and risk of NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1998; 21: 732-737.
  • 13
    Lee DH, Silventoinen K, Jacobs DR, Jr., Jousilahti P, Tuomileto J. gamma-Glutamyltransferase, obesity, and the risk of type 2 diabetes: observational cohort study among 20,158 middle-aged men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 5410-5414.
  • 14
    Nakanishi N, Suzuki K, Tatara K. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Japanese men. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 1427-1432.
  • 15
    Wannamethee SG, Shaper AG, Lennon L, Whincup PH. Hepatic enzymes, the metabolic syndrome, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in older men. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 2913-2918.
  • 16
    Bonnet F, Pierre-Henri D, Gastaldelli A, Laville M, Anderwald C, Konrad T, et al.; for the RISC Study Group. Liver enzymes are associated with hepatic insulin resistance, insulin secretion, and glucagon concentration in healthy men and women. Diabetes 2011; 60: 1660-1667.
  • 17
    Tuomilehto J, Lindström J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hämäläinen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, et al.; Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study Group. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 1343-1350.
  • 18
    Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA, et al.; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 393-403.
  • 19
    Pan XR, Li GW, Hu YH, Wang JX, Yang WY, An ZX, et al. Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance. The Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 1997; 20: 537-544.