The objective of this nationwide case-control study was to evaluate the risk of specific malignancy in diabetic patients who received thiazolidinediones (TZDs). A total of 606,583 type 2 diabetic patients, age 30 years and above, without a history of cancer were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database during the period between January 1 2000 and December 31 2000. As of December 31 2007, patients with incident cancer of liver, colorectal, lung, and urinary bladder were included as cases and up to four age- and sex-matched controls were selected by risk-set sampling. Logistic regression models were applied to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) between TZDs and cancer incidence. A total of 10,741 liver cancer cases, 7,200 colorectal cancer cases, and 70,559 diabetic controls were included. A significantly lower risk of liver cancer incidence was found for any use of rosiglitazone (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.65-0.81) or pioglitazone (OR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.72-0.95), respectively. The protective effects were stronger for higher cumulative dosage and longer duration. For colorectal cancer, rosiglitazone, but not pioglitazone, was associated with a significantly reduced risk (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.76-0.96). TZDs were not associated with lung and bladder cancer incidence, although a potential increased risk for bladder cancer with pioglitazone use ≥3 years could not be excluded (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 0.51-4.74). Conclusion: The use of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone is associated with a decreased liver cancer incidence in diabetic patients. The effects on occurrence of specific cancer types may be different for pioglitazone and rosiglitazone. (HEPATOLOGY 2012;)