• 1
    Lemon SM. Type A viral hepatitis: epidemiology, diagnosis, and prevention. Clin Chem 1997; 43: 1494-1499.
  • 2
    Van Damme P, Van Herck K. A review of the long-term protection after hepatitis A and B vaccination. Travel Med Infect Dis 2007; 5: 79-84.
  • 3
    Jacobsen KH, Wiersma ST. Hepatitis A virus seroprevalence by age and world region, 1990 and 2005. Vaccine 2010; 28: 6653-6657.
  • 4
    Jacobsen KH, Koopman JS. Declining hepatitis A seroprevalence: a global review and analysis. Epidemiol Infect 2004; 132: 1005-1022.
  • 5
    Shapiro CN, Margolis HS. Worldwide epidemiology of hepatitis A virus infection. J Hepatol 1993; 18( Suppl 2): S11-S14.
  • 6
    Katz MH, Hsu L, Wong E, Liska S, Anderson L, Janssen RS. Seroprevalence of and risk factors for hepatitis A infection among young homosexual and bisexual men. J Infect Dis 1997; 175: 1225-1229.
  • 7
    Klevens RM, Miller JT, Iqbal K, Thomas A, Rizzo EM, Hanson H, et al. The evolving epidemiology of hepatitis a in the United States: incidence and molecular epidemiology from population-based surveillance, 2005-2007. Arch Intern Med 2010; 170: 1811-1818.
  • 8
    Prevention of hepatitis A through active or passive immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 1999; 48: 1-37.
  • 9
    Berge JJ, Drennan DP, Jacobs RJ, Jakins A, Meyerhoff AS, Stubblefield W, Weinberg M. The cost of hepatitis A infections in American adolescents and adults in 1997. HEPATOLOGY 2000; 31: 469-473.
  • 10
    Daniels D, Grytdal S, Wasley A. Surveillance for acute viral hepatitis—United States, 2007. MMWR Surveill Summ 2009; 58: 1-27.
  • 11
    Staes CJ, Schlenker TL, Risk I, Cannon KG, Harris H, Pavia AT, et al. Sources of infection among persons with acute hepatitis A and no identified risk factors during a sustained community-wide outbreak. Pediatrics 2000; 106: E54.
  • 12
    Hill AV. Aspects of genetic susceptibility to human infectious diseases. Annu Rev Genet 2006; 40: 469-486.
  • 13
    Fainboim L, Canero Velasco MC, Marcos CY, Ciocca M, Roy A, Theiler G, et al. Protracted, but not acute, hepatitis A virus infection is strongly associated with HLA-DRB*1301, a marker for pediatric autoimmune hepatitis. HEPATOLOGY 2001; 33: 1512-1517.
  • 14
    Kim HY, Eyheramonho MB, Pichavant M, Gonzalez Cambaceres C, Matangkasombut P, Cervio G, et al. A polymorphism in TIM1 is associated with susceptibility to severe hepatitis A virus infection in humans. J Clin Invest 2011; 121: 1111-1118.
  • 15
    Hohler T, Reuss E, Evers N, Dietrich E, Rittner C, Freitag CM, Vollmar J, et al. Differential genetic determination of immune responsiveness to hepatitis B surface antigen and to hepatitis A virus: a vaccination study in twins. Lancet 2002; 360: 991-995.
  • 16
    Hohler T, Reuss E, Freitag CM, Schneider PM. A functional polymorphism in the IL-10 promoter influences the response after vaccination with HBsAg and hepatitis A. HEPATOLOGY 2005; 42: 72-76.
  • 17
    Bell BP, Kruszon-Moran D, Shapiro CN, Lambert SB, McQuillan GM, Margolis HS. Hepatitis A virus infection in the United States: serologic results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Vaccine 2005; 23: 5798-5806.
  • 18
    NHANES Genetic htm. Accessed on August 02, 2011.
  • 19
    Plan and operation of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-94. Series 1: programs and collection procedures. Vital Health Stat 1 1994: 1-407.
  • 20
    Chang MH, Lindegren ML, Butler MA, Chanock SJ, Dowling NF, Gallagher M, et al. Prevalence in the United States of selected candidate gene variants: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1991-1994. Am J Epidemiol 2009; 169: 54-66.
  • 21
    Martin A, Lemon SM. Hepatitis A virus: from discovery to vaccines. HEPATOLOGY 2006; 43: S164-S172.
  • 22
    Theken KN, Deng Y, Kannon MA, Miller TM, Poloyac SM, Lee CR. Activation of the acute inflammatory response alters cytochrome P450 expression and eicosanoid metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos 2011; 39: 22-29.
  • 23
    Cemek M, Dede S, Bayiroglu F, Caksen H, Cemek F, Mert N. Relationship between antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in children with acute hepatitis A. World J Gastroenterol 2006; 12: 6212-6215.
  • 24
    GeneCards. Available at: Acessed April 04, 2010.
  • 25
    Crawford DC, Sanders CL, Qin X, Smith JD, Shephard C, Wong M, et al. Genetic variation is associated with C-reactive protein levels in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Circulation 2006; 114: 2458-2465.
  • 26
    Binder DA. On the variances of asymptotically normal estimators from complex surveys. Int Stat Rev 1983; 51: 279-292.
  • 27
    Woodruff RS. A simple method for approximating the variance of a complicated estimate. Journal of the American Statistical Association 1971; 66: 411-414.
  • 28
    Nei M, Tajima F, Tateno Y. Accuracy of estimated phylogenetic trees from molecular data. II. Gene frequency data. J Mol Evol 1983; 19: 153-170.
  • 29
    Benjamini Y, Hochberg Y. Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J Royal Stat Soc B (Methodological) 1995; 57: 289-300.
  • 30
    Quanto. Available at: http;// Accessed August 2, 2011.
  • 31
    Hindorff LA, Sethupathy P, Junkins HA, Ramos EM, Mehta JP, Collins FS, et al. Potential etiologic and functional implications of genome-wide association loci for human diseases and traits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009; 106: 9362-9367.
  • 32
    Ioannidis JP, Trikalinos TA, Khoury MJ. Implications of small effect sizes of individual genetic variants on the design and interpretation of genetic association studies of complex diseases. Am J Epidemiol 2006; 164: 609-614.
  • 33
    Altshuler DM, Gibbs RA, Peltonen L, Dermitzakis E, Schaffner SF, Yu F, et al. Integrating common and rare genetic variation in diverse human populations. Nature 2010; 467: 52-58.
  • 34
    Flisiak R, Prokopowicz D, Jaroszewicz J, Flisiak I. Plasma transforming growth factor-beta(1) in acute viral hepatitis. Med Sci Monit 2005; 11: CR304-CR308.
  • 35
    Grainger DJ, Heathcote K, Chiano M, Snieder H, Kemp PR, Metcalfe JC, et al. Genetic control of the circulating concentration of transforming growth factor type beta1. Hum Mol Genet 1999; 8: 93-97.
  • 36
    Silverman ES, Palmer LJ, Subramaniam V, Hallock A, Mathew S, Vallone J, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta1 promoter polymorphism C-509T is associated with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004; 169: 214-219.
  • 37
    Li MO, Wan YY, Sanjabi S, Robertson AK, Flavell RA. Transforming growth factor-beta regulation of immune responses. Annu Rev Immunol 2006; 24: 99-146.
  • 38
    Vidal AE, Boiteux S, Hickson ID, Radicella JP. XRCC1 coordinates the initial and late stages of DNA abasic site repair through protein-protein interactions. EMBO J 2001; 20: 6530-6539.
  • 39
    Kiran M, Saxena R, Chawla YK, Kaur J. Polymorphism of DNA repair gene XRCC1 and hepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma risk in Indian population. Mol Cell Biochem 2009; 327: 7-13.
  • 40
    Sobti RC, Mahdi SA, Berhane N, Hosseini SA, Kler R, Kuttiat V, et al. The influence of variations in the DNA repair (XRCC1) gene on HIV-1/AIDS among Indian population. Folia Biol (Praha) 2009; 55: 183-186.
  • 41
    Unnikrishnan A, Raffoul JJ, Patel HV, Prychitko TM, Anyangwe N, Meira LB, et al. Oxidative stress alters base excision repair pathway and increases apoptotic response in apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 haploinsufficient mice. Free Radic Biol Med 2009; 46: 1488-1499.
  • 42
    Nicoloso MS, Sun H, Spizzo R, Kim H, Wickramasinghe P, Shimizu M, et al. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms inside microRNA target sites influence tumor susceptibility. Cancer Res 2010; 70: 2789-2798.
  • 43
    Pallis M, Russell N. P-glycoprotein plays a drug-efflux-independent role in augmenting cell survival in acute myeloblastic leukemia and is associated with modulation of a sphingomyelin-ceramide apoptotic pathway. Blood 2000; 95: 2897-2904.
  • 44
    Ros JE, Libbrecht L, Geuken M, Jansen PL, Roskams TA. High expression of MDR1, MRP1, and MRP3 in the hepatic progenitor cell compartment and hepatocytes in severe human liver disease. J Pathol 2003; 200: 553-560.
  • 45
    Fung KL, Gottesman MM. A synonymous polymorphism in a common MDR1 (ABCB1) haplotype shapes protein function. Biochim Biophys Acta 2009; 1794: 860-871.
  • 46
    Kimchi-Sarfaty C, Oh JM, Kim IW, Sauna ZE, Calcagno AM, Ambudkar SV, et al. A “silent” polymorphism in the MDR1 gene changes substrate specificity. Science 2007; 315: 525-528.
  • 47
    Wang D, Sadee W. Searching for polymorphisms that affect gene expression and mRNA processing: example ABCB1 (MDR1). AAPS J 2006; 8: E515-E520.
  • 48
    Tapia-Conyer R, Santos JI, Cavalcanti AM, Urdaneta E, Rivera L, Manterola A, et al. Hepatitis A in Latin America: a changing epidemiologic pattern. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1999; 61: 825-829.
  • 49
    Ramos RG, Olden K. Gene-environment interactions in the development of complex disease phenotypes. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2008; 5: 4-11.
  • 50
    Reich DE, Cargill M, Bolk S, Ireland J, Sabeti PC, Richter DJ, et al. Linkage disequilibrium in the human genome. Nature 2001; 411: 199-204.
  • 51
    McKeigue PM, Carpenter JR, Parra EJ, Shriver MD. Estimation of admixture and detection of linkage in admixed populations by a Bayesian approach: application to African-American populations. Ann Hum Genet 2000; 64: 171-186.
  • 52
    Salari K, Choudhry S, Tang H, Naqvi M, Lind D, Avila PC, et al. Genetic admixture and asthma-related phenotypes in Mexican American and Puerto Rican asthmatics. Genet Epidemiol 2005; 29: 76-86.
  • 53
    Shriver MD, Kennedy GC, Parra EJ, Lawson HA, Sonpar V, Huang J, et al. The genomic distribution of population substructure in four populations using 8,525 autosomal SNPs. Hum Genomics 2004; 1: 274-286.
  • 54
    Dumitrescu L, Carty CL, Taylor K, Schumacher FR, Hindorff LA, Ambite JL, et al. Genetic determinants of lipid traits in diverse populations from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study. PLoS Genet 2011; 7: e1002138.