SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Harry R, Auzinger G, Wendon J. The clinical importance of adrenal insufficiency in acute hepatic dysfunction. HEPATOLOGY 2002; 36: 395-402.
  • 2
    Tsai MH, Peng YS, Chen YC, Liu NJ, Ho YP, Fang JT, et al. Adrenal insufficiency in patients with cirrhosis, severe sepsis, and septic shock. HEPATOLOGY 2006; 43: 673-681.
  • 3
    Marik PE, Gayowski T, Starzl TE; Hepatic Cortisol Research and Adrenal Pathophysiology Study Group. The hepatoadrenal syndrome: a common yet unrecognized clinical condition. Crit Care Med 2005; 33: 1254-1259.
  • 4
    Triantos C, Marziqie M, Fede G, Michalaki M, Giannakopoulou D, Thomopoulos K, et al. Critical illness related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) in patients with cirrhosis and variceal bleeding. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011; 9: 595-601.
  • 5
    Risso A, Alessandria C, Elia C, Mezzabotta L, Andrealli A, Spandre M, et al. Adrenal dysfunction in nonseptic cirrhotic patients with ascites: impact on survival [Abstract]. Digest Liver Dis 2011; 43( Suppl 2): S74-S75.
  • 6
    Toniutto P, Fabris C, Fumolo E, Bitetto D, Fornasiere E, Falleti E, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for delayed adrenal insufficiency after liver transplantation. Liver Transpl 2008; 14: 1014-1019.
  • 7
    Arabi YM, Aljumah A, Dabbagh O, Tamim HM, Rishu AH, Al-Abdulkareem A, et al. Low-dose hydrocortisone in patients with cirrhosis and septic shock: a randomized controlled trial. CMAJ 2010; 182: 1971-1977.
  • 8
    Fernández J, Escorsell A, Zabalza M, Felipe V, Navasa M, Mas A, et al. Adrenal insufficiency in patients with cirrhosis and septic shock: Effect of treatment with hydrocortisone on survival. HEPATOLOGY 2006; 44: 1288-1295.
  • 9
    Harry R, Auzinger G, Wendon J. The effects of supraphysiological doses of corticosteroids in hypotensive liver failure. Liver Int 2003; 23: 71-77.
  • 10
    Chatha KK, Middle JG, Kilpatrick ES. National UK audit of the short synacthen test. Ann Clin Biochem 2010; 47: 158-164.
  • 11
    Aron DC, Findling JW, Tyrrell JB. Glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens. In: Gardner DG, Shoback D, eds. Greenspan's: Basic and Clinical Endocrinology, 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2007: 356-363.
  • 12
    Marik PE, Pastores SM, Annane D, Meduri GU, Sprung CL, Arlt W, et al. Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of corticosteroid insufficiency in critically ill adult patients: consensus statements from an international task force by the American College of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med 2008; 36: 1937-1949.
  • 13
    Parker KL, Kovacs WJ. Addison's disease (adrenal insufficiency). In: Wass JAH, Shalet SM, eds. Oxford Textbook of Endocrinology and Diabetes, 1st ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2002: 837-844.
  • 14
    Oelkers W. Adrenal insufficiency. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 1206-1212.
  • 15
    Kazlauskaite R, Evans AT, Villabona CV, Abdu TAM, Ambrosi B, Brew Atkinson A, et al. Corticotropin tests for hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal insufficiency: a metaanalysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008; 93: 4245-4253.
  • 16
    Marik PE. Adrenal-exhaustion syndrome in patients with liver disease. Intensive Care Med 2006; 32: 275-280.
  • 17
    McDonald JA, Handelsman DJ, Dilworth P, Conway AJ, McCaughan GW. Hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal function in end-stage non-alcoholic liver disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1993; 8: 247-253.
  • 18
    Zietz B, Lock G, Plach B, Drobnik W, Grossmann J, Schölmerich J, Straub RH. Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-glandular axes and relation to Child-Pugh classification in male patients with alcoholic and virus-related cirrhosis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2003; 15: 495-501.
  • 19
    Galbois A, Rudler M, Massard J, Fulla Y, Bennani A, Bonnefort-Rousselot D, et al. Assessment of adrenal function in cirrhotic patients: salivary cortisol should be preferred. J Hepatol 2010; 52: 839-845.
  • 20
    Kirkman S, Nelson DH. Alcohol-induced pseudo-Cushing's disease: a study of prevalence with review of the literature. Metabolism 1988; 37: 390-394.
  • 21
    Tan T, Chang L, Woodward A, McWhinney B, Galligan J, Macdonald GA, et al. Characterising adrenal function using directly measured plasma free cortisol in stable severe liver disease. J Hepatol 2010; 53: 841-848.
  • 22
    Vogeser M, Briegel J, Zachoval R. Dialyzable free cortisol after stimulation with Synacthen. Clin Biochem 2002; 35: 539-543.
  • 23
    Fede G, Spadaro L, Tomaselli T, Privitera G, Piro S, Rabuazzo AM, et al. Assessment of adrenocortical reserve in stable patients with cirrhosis. J Hepatol 2011; 54: 243-250.
  • 24
    Acevedo J, Fernández J, Castro M, Roca D, Ginès P, Arroyo V. Prognostic value of relative adrenal insufficiency in decompensated cirrhosis. J Hepatol 2010; 52: S59.
  • 25
    Acevedo J, Fernández J, Castro M, Roca D, Ginès P, Arroyo V. Impact of relative adrenal insufficiency on circulatory function and mortality in advanced cirrhosis. J Hepatol 2011; 54: S61.
  • 26
    Graupera I, Hernandez-Gea V, Rodriguez J, Colomo A, Poca M, Llao J, et al. Incidence and prognostic significance of relative adrenal insufficiency in cirrhotic patients with severe variceal bleeding [Abstract]. HEPATOLOGY 2010; 52: 267A.
  • 27
    Iwasaki T, Tominaga M, Fukumoto T, Kusonoki N, Sugimoto T, Kido M, et al. Relative adrenal insufficiency manifested with multiple organ dysfunction in a liver transplant patient. Liver Transpl 2006; 12: 1896-1899.
  • 28
    Singh N, Gayowski T, Marino IR, Schlichtig R. Acute adrenal insufficiency in critically ill liver transplant recipients. Implications for diagnosis. Transplantation 1995; 59: 1744-1745.
  • 29
    Patel S, Broomhead R, Burroughs AK, Mallett SV, O'Beirne J. Effect of intra-operative methylprednisolone on post liver transplant (LT) inensive care unit (ITU) course—further evidence for the existence of hepato-adrenal syndrome? J Hepatol 2010; 52( Suppl 1): S197.
  • 30
    Agha A, Tomlinson JW, Clark PM, Holder G, Stewart PM. The long-term predictive accuracy of the short synacthen (corticotropin) stimulation test for assessment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91: 43-47.
  • 31
    Coolens JL, Van Baelen H, Heyns W. Clinical use of unbound plasma cortisol as calculated from total cortisol and corticosteroid-binding globulin. J Steroid Biochem 1987; 26: 197-202.
  • 32
    Arafah BM. Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal function during critical illness: limitations of current assessment methods. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006 Oct; 91( 10): 3725-3745.
  • 33
    Hamrahian AH, Oseni TS, Arafah BM. Measurements of serum free cortisol in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 1629-1638.
  • 34
    Wiest R, Moleda L, Zietz B, Hellerbrand C, Schölmerich J, Straub R. Uncoupling of sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in cirrhosis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008; 23: 1901-1908.
  • 35
    Vincent RP, Etogo-Asse FE, Dew T, Bernal W, Alaghband-Zadeh J, le Roux CW. Serum total cortisol and free cortisol index give different information regarding the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis reserve in patients with liver impairment. Ann Clin Biochem 2009; 46: 505-507.
  • 36
    Wood P. Salivary steroid assays—research or routine? Ann Clin Biochem 2009; 46: 183-196.
  • 37
    Thevenot T, Borot S, Remy-Martin A, Sapin R, Cervoni JP, Richou C, et al. Assessment of adrenal function in cirrhotic patients using concentration of serum-free and salivary cortisol. Liver Int 2011; 31: 425-433.
  • 38
    Yaguchi H, Tsutsumi K, Shimono K, Omura M, Sasano H, Nishikawa T. Involvement of high density lipoprotein as substrate cholesterol for steroidogenesis by bovine adrenal fasciculo-reticularis cells. Life Sci 1998; 62: 1387-1395.
  • 39
    Cicognani C, Malavolti M, Morselli-Labate AM, Zamboni L, Sama C, Barbara L. Serum lipid and lipoprotein patterns in patients with liver cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis. Arch Intern Med 1997; 157: 792-796.
  • 40
    Bornstein SR. Predisposing factors for adrenal insufficiency. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 2328-2339.
  • 41
    Gaillard RC, Turnill D, Sappino P, Muller AF. Tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibits the hormonal response of the pituitary gland to hypothalamic releasing factors. Endocrinology 1990; 127: 101-106.