• 1
    Rosenthal E, Salmon-Ceron D, Lewden C, Bouteloup V, Pialoux G, Bonnet F, et al. Liver-related deaths in HIV-infected patients between 1995 and 2005 in the French GERMIVIC Joint Study Group Network (Mortavic 2005 study in collaboration with the Mortalite 2005 survey, ANRS EN19). HIV Med 2009; 10: 282-289.
  • 2
    Weber R, Sabin CA, Friis-Moller N, Reiss P, El-Sadr WM, Kirk O, et al. Liver-related deaths in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: the D:A:D study. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166: 1632-1641.
  • 3
    Ruppik M, Ledergerber B, Rickenbach M. Changing patterns of causes of death in the SHCS 2005-2009. CROI 2001. Poster #789. Available at: Accessed March 8, 2012.
  • 4
    Kanwal F, Hoang T, Kramer JR, Asch SM, Goetz MB, Zeringue A, et al. Increasing prevalence of HCC and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Gastroenterology 2011; 140: 1182-1188.
  • 5
    Davis GL, Alter MJ, El-Serag H, Poynard T, Jennings LW. Aging of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected persons in the United States: a multiple cohort model of HCV prevalence and disease progression. Gastroenterology 2010; 138: 513-521.
  • 6
    Altekruse SF, McGlynn KA, Reichman ME. Hepatocellular carcinoma incidence, mortality, and survival trends in the United States from 1975 to 2005. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27: 1485-1491.
  • 7
  • 8
  • 9
  • 10
    Kramer JR, Davila JA, Miller ED, Richardson P, Giordano TP, El-Serag HB. The validity of viral hepatitis and chronic liver disease diagnoses in Veterans Affairs administrative databases. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2008; 27: 274-282.
  • 11
    Kramer JR, Giordano TP, Souchek J, Richardson P, Hwang LY, El-Serag HB. The effect of HIV coinfection on the risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in U.S. veterans with hepatitis C. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100: 56-63.
    Direct Link:
  • 12
    Ioannou GN, Splan MF, Weiss NS, McDonald GB, Beretta L, Lee SP. Incidence and predictors of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007; 5: 938-945.
  • 13
    Davila JA, Henderson L, Kramer JR, Kanwal F, Richardson PA, Duan Z, et al. Utilization of surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma among hepatitis C virus-infected veterans in the United States. Ann Intern Med 2011; 154: 85-93.
  • 14
    El-Serag HB, Johnson ML, Hachem C, Morgana RO. Statins are associated with a reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in a large cohort of patients with diabetes. Gastroenterology 2009; 136: 1601-1608.
  • 15
    Beste LA, Ioannou GN, Larson MS, Chapko M, Dominitz JA. Predictors of early treatment discontinuation among patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C and implications for viral eradication. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 8: 972-978.
  • 16
    Backus LI, Boothroyd DB, Phillips BR, Mole LA. Predictors of response of US veterans to treatment for the hepatitis C virus. HEPATOLOGY 2007; 46: 37-47.
  • 17
    Armstrong GL, Alter MJ, McQuillan GM, Margolis HS. The past incidence of hepatitis C virus infection: implications for the future burden of chronic liver disease in the United States. HEPATOLOGY 2000; 31: 777-782.
  • 18
    Castellares C, Barreiro P, Martin-Carbonero L, Labarga P, Vispo ME, Casado R, et al. Liver cirrhosis in HIV-infected patients: prevalence, aetiology and clinical outcome. J Viral Hepat 2008; 15: 165-172.
  • 19
    Pineda JA, Gonzalez J, Ortega E, Tural C, Macias J, Griffa L, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with significant liver fibrosis assessed by transient elastometry in HIV/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients. J Viral Hepat 2010; 17: 714-719.
  • 20
    Martin-Carbonero L, Benhamou Y, Puoti M, Berenguer J, Mallolas J, Quereda C, et al. Incidence and predictors of severe liver fibrosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C: a European collaborative study. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 38: 128-133.
  • 21
    Berenguer J, Bellon JM, Miralles P, Alvarez E, Castillo I, Cosin J, et al. Association between exposure to nevirapine and reduced liver fibrosis progression in patients with HIV and hepatitis C virus coinfection. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 46: 137-143.
  • 22
    Aberg JA, Kaplan JE, Libman H, Emmanuel P, Anderson JR, Stone VE, et al. Primary care guidelines for the management of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus: 2009 update by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 49: 651-681.
  • 23
    Mehta SH, Lucas GM, Mirel LB, Torbenson M, Higgins Y, Moore RD, et al. Limited effectiveness of antiviral treatment for hepatitis C in an urban HIV clinic. AIDS 2006; 20: 2361-2369.
  • 24
    Scott JD, Wald A, Kitahata M, Krantz E, Drolette L, Corey L, et al. Hepatitis C virus is infrequently evaluated and treated in an urban HIV clinic population. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2009; 23: 925-929.
  • 25
    Sherman KE, Rockstroh J, Dieterich DT, Soriano V, Girard PM, McCallister S, et al. Telaprevir combination with peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin in HCV/HIV coinfected patients: 24-week treatment interim analysis. Presented at: 62nd Annual Meeting for the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases; September 15, 2011; San Francisco, CA. Abstract 8.
  • 26
    Sulkowski M, Pol S, Cooper C, Fainboim H, Slim J, Rivero A, et al. Boceprevir plus peginterferon/ribavirin for the treatment of HCV/HIV co-infected patients: interim on-treatment results. Presented at: 49th Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; October 22, 2011; Boston, MA. Abstract 37.
  • 27
    Bruyand M, Thiebaut R, Lawson-Ayayi S, Joly P, Sasco AJ, Mercie P, et al. Role of uncontrolled HIV RNA level and immunodeficiency in the occurrence of malignancy in HIV-infected patients during the combination antiretroviral therapy era: Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida (ANRS) CO3 Aquitaine Cohort. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 49: 1109-1116.
  • 28
    Clifford GM, Rickenbach M, Polesel J, Dal Maso L, Steffen I, Ledergerber B, et al. Influence of HIV-related immunodeficiency on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. AIDS 2008; 22: 2135-2141.
  • 29
    Maida I, Nunez M, Rios MJ, Martin-Carbonero L, Sotgiu G, Toro C, et al. Severe liver disease associated with prolonged exposure to antiretroviral drugs. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006; 42: 177-182.
  • 30
    Ribera E, Paradineiro JC, Curran A, Sauleda S, Garcia-Arumi E, Castella E, et al. Improvements in subcutaneous fat, lipid profile, and parameters of mitochondrial toxicity in patients with peripheral lipoatrophy when stavudine is switched to tenofovir (LIPOTEST study). HIV Clin Trials 2008; 9: 407-417.
  • 31
    Lee GA, Seneviratne T, Noor MA, Lo JC, Schwarz JM, Aweeka FT, et al. The metabolic effects of lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV-negative men. Aids 2004; 18: 641-649.
  • 32
    Kurowski M, Sternfeld T, Sawyer A, Hill A, Mocklinghoff C. Pharmacokinetic and tolerability profile of twice-daily saquinavir hard gelatin capsules and saquinavir soft gelatin capsules boosted with ritonavir in healthy volunteers. HIV Med 2003; 4: 94-100.