• 1
    Seeff LB. Natural history of chronic hepatitis C. HEPATOLOGY 2002; 36: S35-S46.
  • 2
    El-Serag HB, Hampel H, Yeh C, Rabeneck L. Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C among United States male veterans. HEPATOLOGY 2002; 36: 1439-1445.
  • 3
    Gallego-Rojo FJ, Gonzalez-Calvin JL, Munoz-Torres M, Mundi JL, Fernandez-Perez R, Rodrigo-Moreno D. Bone mineral density, serum insulin-like growth factor I, and bone turnover markers in viral cirrhosis. HEPATOLOGY 1998; 28: 695-699.
  • 4
    Gonzalez-Calvin JL, Gallego-Rojo F, Fernandez-Perez R, Casado-Caballero F, Ruiz-Escolano E, Olivares EG. Osteoporosis, mineral metabolism, and serum soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor p55 in viral cirrhosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 4325-4330.
  • 5
    Leslie WD, Bernstein CN, Leboff MS. AGA technical review on osteoporosis in hepatic disorders. Gastroenterology 2003; 125: 941-966.
  • 6
    Lo Re V, 3rd, Guaraldi G, Leonard MB, Localio AR, Lin J, Orlando G, et al. Viral hepatitis is associated with reduced bone mineral density in HIV-infected women but not men. AIDS 2009; 23: 2191-2198.
  • 7
    Rouillard S, Lane NE. Hepatic osteodystrophy. HEPATOLOGY 2001; 33: 301-307.
  • 8
    Gilbert L, He X, Farmer P, Rubin J, Drissi H, van Wijnen AJ, et al. Expression of the osteoblast differentiation factor RUNX2 (Cbfa1/AML3/Pebp2alpha A) is inhibited by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. J Biol Chem 2002; 277: 2695-2701.
  • 9
    Hay JE. Bone disease in cholestatic liver disease. Gastroenterology 1995; 108: 276-283.
  • 10
    Pignata S, Daniele B, Galati MG, Esposito G, Vallone P, Fiore F, et al. Oestradiol and testosterone blood levels in patients with viral cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1997; 9: 283-286.
  • 11
    McComsey GA, Tebas P, Shane E, Yin MT, Overton ET, Huang JS, et al. Bone disease in HIV infection: a practical review and recommendations for HIV care providers. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 51: 937-946.
  • 12
    Brown TT, Qaqish RB. Antiretroviral therapy and the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis: a meta-analytic review. AIDS 2006; 20: 2165-2174.
  • 13
    Mittalhenkle A, Gillen DL, Stehman-Breen CO. Increased risk of mortality associated with hip fracture in the dialysis population. Am J Kidney Dis 2004; 44: 672-679.
  • 14
    Hennessy S, Carson JL, Ray WA, Strom BL: Medicaid databases. In: Strom BL, ed. Pharmacoepidemiology, 4th ed. Chichester, UK: Wiley; 2005.
  • 15
    Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Medicaid Statistical Information System (MSIS) Tables. Available at: Accessed on April 4, 2012.
  • 16
    Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) Validation Reports. Available at: Accessed on April 4, 2012.
  • 17
    Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. Report to the Congress: New Approaches in Medicare. 2004.
  • 18
    Hennessy S, Leonard CE, Palumbo CM, Newcomb C, Bilker WB. Quality of Medicaid and Medicare data obtained through Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Med Care 2007; 45: 1216-1220.
  • 19
    Keyes M, Andrews R, Mason ML. A methodology for building an AIDS research file using Medicaid claims and administrative data bases. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1991; 4: 1015-1024.
  • 20
    Kramer JR, Davila JA, Miller ED, Richardson P, Giordano TP, El-Serag HB. The validity of viral hepatitis and chronic liver disease diagnoses in Veterans Affairs administrative databases. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2008; 27: 274-282.
  • 21
    Markowitz JS, Gutterman EM, Hodes D, Klaskala W. Factors associated with the initiation of alpha-interferon treatment in Medicaid patients diagnosed with hepatitis C. J Viral Hepat 2005; 12: 176-185.
  • 22
    Thompson MA, Aberg JA, Cahn P, Montaner JS, Rizzardini G, Telenti A, et al. Antiretroviral treatment of adult HIV infection: 2010 recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA panel. JAMA 2010; 304: 321-333.
  • 23
    Hofmann WP, Kronenberger B, Bojunga J, Stamm B, Herrmann E, Bucker A, et al. Prospective study of bone mineral density and metabolism in patients with chronic hepatitis C during pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin therapy. J Viral Hepat 2008; 15: 790-796.
  • 24
    Ray WA, Griffin MR, Fought RL, Adams ML. Identification of fractures from computerized Medicare files. J Clin Epidemiol 1992; 45: 703-714.
  • 25
    Lo Re V, 3rd, Lim JK, Goetz MB, Tate J, Bathulapalli H, Klein MB, et al. Validity of diagnostic codes and liver-related laboratory abnormalities to identify hepatic decompensation events in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2011; 20: 689-699.
  • 26
    Little RJA. Direct standardization: a tool for teaching linear models for unbalanced data. Am Stat 1982; 36: 38-43.
  • 27
    Braitman LE, Rosenbaum PR. Rare outcomes, common treatments: analytic strategies using propensity scores. Ann Intern Med 2002; 137: 693-695.
  • 28
    D'Agostino RB, Jr. Propensity score methods for bias reduction in the comparison of a treatment to a non-randomized control group. Stat Med 1998; 17: 2265-2281.
  • 29
    Collett D. Modeling Survival Data in Medical Research. New York: Chapman and Hall; 2003.
  • 30
    Lee BK, Lessler J, Stuart EA. Weight trimming and propensity score weighting. PLoS One 2011; 6: e18174.
  • 31
    Rosenbaum PR, Rubin DB. Constructing a control group using multivariate matched sampling methods that incorporate the propensity score. Am Stat 1985; 39: 33-38.
  • 32
    Lin DY, Psaty BM, Kronmal RA. Assessing the sensitivity of regression results to unmeasured confounders in observational studies. Biometrics 1998; 54: 948-963.
  • 33
    Triant VA, Brown TT, Lee H, Grinspoon SK. Fracture prevalence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected versus non-HIV-infected patients in a large U.S. healthcare system. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008; 93: 3499-3504.
  • 34
    Fakruddin JM, Laurence J. HIV envelope gp120-mediated regulation of osteoclastogenesis via receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) secretion and its modulation by certain HIV protease inhibitors through interferon-gamma/RANKL cross-talk. J Biol Chem 2003; 278: 48251-48258.
  • 35
    Gibellini D, De Crignis E, Ponti C, Cimatti L, Borderi M, Tschon M, et al. HIV-1 triggers apoptosis in primary osteoblasts and HOBIT cells through TNFalpha activation. J Med Virol 2008; 80: 1507-1514.
  • 36
    Mondy K, Yarasheski K, Powderly WG, Whyte M, Claxton S, DeMarco D, et al. Longitudinal evolution of bone mineral density and bone markers in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 36: 482-490.
  • 37
    Tebas P, Powderly WG, Claxton S, Marin D, Tantisiriwat W, Teitelbaum SL, Yarasheski KE. Accelerated bone mineral loss in HIV-infected patients receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 2000; 14: F63-F67.
  • 38
    Brown TT, McComsey GA, King MS, Qaqish RB, Bernstein BM, da Silva BA. Loss of bone mineral density after antiretroviral therapy initiation, independent of antiretroviral regimen. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2009; 51: 554-561.
  • 39
    Gallant JE, Staszewski S, Pozniak AL, DeJesus E, Suleiman JM, Miller MD, et al. Efficacy and safety of tenofovir DF vs stavudine in combination therapy in antiretroviral-naive patients: a 3-year randomized trial. JAMA 2004; 292: 191-201.
  • 40
    Fux CA, Christen A, Zgraggen S, Mohaupt MG, Furrer H. Effect of tenofovir on renal glomerular and tubular function. AIDS 2007; 21: 1483-1485.
  • 41
    National Osteoporosis Foundation. Clinician's Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis. Washington, DC: National Osteoporosis Foundation; 2010.
  • 42
    Fleishman JA, Gebo KA, Reilly ED, Conviser R, Christopher Mathews W, Todd Korthuis P, et al. Hospital and outpatient health services utilization among HIV-infected adults in care 2000-2002. Med Care 2005; 43( 9 Suppl): III40-III52.
  • 43
    Armstrong GL, Wasley A, Simard EP, McQuillan GM, Kuhnert WL, Alter MJ. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in the United States, 1999 through 2002. Ann Intern Med 2006; 144: 705-714.
  • 44
    Sherman KE, Rouster SD, Chung RT, Rajicic N. Hepatitis C virus prevalence among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a cross-sectional analysis of the US adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 34: 831-837.