• 1
    Ebert EC. Hypoxic liver injury. Mayo Clin Proc 2006; 81: 1232- 1236.
  • 2
    Henrion J, Schapira M, Luwaert R, Colin L, Delannoy A, Heller FR. Hypoxic hepatitis: clinical and hemodynamic study in 142 consecutive cases. Medicine (Baltimore) 2003; 82: 392- 406.
  • 3
    Birrer R, Takuda Y, Takara T. Hypoxic hepatopathy: pathophysiology and prognosis. Intern Med 2007; 46: 1063- 1070.
  • 4
    Henrion J, Minette P, Colin L, Schapira M, Delannoy A, Heller FR. Hypoxic hepatitis caused by acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure: a case-controlled, hemodynamic study of 17 consecutive cases. HEPATOLOGY 1999; 29: 427- 433.
  • 5
    Henrion J, Colin L, Schapira M, Heller FR. Hypoxic hepatitis caused by severe hypoxemia from obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Gastroenterol 1997; 24: 245- 249.
  • 6
    Henrion J, Deltenre P, De Maeght S, Peny MO, Schapira M. Acute lower limb ischemia as a triggering condition in hypoxic hepatitis: a study of 5 cases. J Clin Gastroenterol 2011 45: 274- 277.
  • 7
    Henrion J, Deltenre P, Peny MO, Dumoulin P, Laurent Y, Brenard R. Fatal hypoxic hepatitis in a patient with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber's disease). Acta Gastroenterol Belg 2010; 73: 61- 64.
  • 8
    Henrion J. Hypoxic hepatitis. Liver Int 2011 Oct 10. doi: 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2011.0265.x.
  • 9
    Fuhrmann V, Kneidinger N, Herkner H, Heinz G, Nikfardjam M, Bojic A, et al. Hypoxic hepatitis: underlying conditions and risk factors for mortality in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med 2009; 35: 1397- 1405.
  • 10
    Fuhrmann V, Jäger B, Zubkova A, Drolz A. Hypoxic hepatitis—epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical management. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2010; 122: 129- 139.
  • 11
    Beaussier M, Wendum D, Fouassier L, Rey C, Barbu V, Lasnier E, et al. Adaptative bile duct proliferative response in experimental bile duct ischemia. J Hepatol 2005; 42: 257- 265.
  • 12
    Fouassier L, Beaussier M, Schiffer E, Rey C, Barbu V, Mergey M, et al. Hypoxia-induced changes in the expression of rat hepatobiliary transporter genes. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2007; 293: G25- G35.
  • 13
    Doctor RB, Dahl RH, Salter KD, Fitz JG. Reorganization of cholangiocyte membrane domains represents an early event in rat liver ischemia. HEPATOLOGY 1999; 29: 1364- 1374.
  • 14
    Lenzen R, Funk A, Kolb-Bachofen V, Strohmeyer G. Norepinephrine-induced cholestasis in the isolated perfused rat liver is secondary to its hemodynamic effects. HEPATOLOGY 1990; 12: 314- 321.
  • 15
    Vuppalanchi R, Liangpunsakul S, Chalasani N. Etiology of new-onset jaundice: how often is it caused by idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury in the United States? Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102: 558- 562; quiz, 693.
  • 16
    Brienza N, Dalfino L, Cinnella G, Diele C, Bruno F, Fiore T. Jaundice in critical illness: promoting factors of a concealed reality. Intensive Care Med 2006; 32: 267- 274.
  • 17
    Whitehead MW, Hainsworth I, Kingham JG. The causes of obvious jaundice in South West Wales: perceptions versus reality. Gut 2001; 48: 409- 413.
  • 18
    Gibson PR, Dudley FJ. Ischemic hepatitis: clinical features, diagnosis, and prognosis. Aust N Z J Med 1984; 14: 822- 825.
  • 19
    Hickman PE, Potter JM. Mortality associated with ischaemic hepatitis. Aust N Z J Med 1990; 20: 32- 34.
  • 20
    Jalan R. Acute-on-chronic liver failure: from concept to a new syndrome. Curr Opin Crit Care 2011; 17: 152.
  • 21
    Jalan R, Williams R. Acute-on-chronic liver failure: pathophysiological basis of therapeutic options. Blood Purif 2002; 20: 252- 261.
  • 22
    te Boekhorst T, Urlus M, Doesburg W, Yap SH, Goris RJ. Etiologic factors of jaundice in severely ill patients. A retrospective study in patients admitted to an intensive care unit with severe trauma or with septic intra-abdominal complications following surgery and without evidence of bile duct obstruction. J Hepatol 1988; 7: 111- 117.
  • 23
    Mesotten D, Wauters J, Van den Berghe G, Wouters PJ, Milants I, Wilmer A. The effect of strict blood glucose control on biliary sludge and cholestasis in critically ill patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009; 94: 2345- 2352.
  • 24
    Goldberg RJ, Samad NA, Yarzebski J, Gurwitz J, Bigelow C, Gore JM. Temporal trends in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 1162- 1168.
  • 25
    American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference: definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. Crit Care Med 1992; 20: 864- 874.
  • 26
    Muscedere J, Dodek P, Keenan S, Fowler R, Cook D, Heyland D. Comprehensive evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for ventilator-associated pneumonia: diagnosis and treatment. J Crit Care 2008; 23: 138- 147.
  • 27
    Guay DR. Contemporary management of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Drugs 2008; 68: 1169- 1205.
  • 28
    Leone M, Garnier F, Avidan M, Martin C. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections in intensive care units. Microbes Infect 2004; 6: 1026- 1032.
  • 29
    Cook D, Guyatt G, Marshall J, Leasa D, Fuller H, Hall R, et al. A comparison of sucralfate and ranitidine for the prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Canadian Critical Care Trials Group. N Engl J Med 1998; 338: 791- 797.
  • 30
    Trompeter M, Brazda T, Remy CT, Vestring T, Reimer P. Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia: etiology, diagnosis, and interventional therapy. Eur Radiol 2002; 12: 1179- 1187.
  • 31
    Kozuch PL, Brandt LJ. Review article: diagnosis and management of mesenteric ischaemia with an emphasis on pharmacotherapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005; 21: 201- 215.
  • 32
    Gelbmann CM, Rummele P, Wimmer M, Hofstadter F, Gohlmann B, Endlicher E, et al. Ischemic-like cholangiopathy with secondary sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients. Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102: 1221- 1229.
  • 33
    Kramer L, Jordan B, Druml W, Bauer P, Metnitz PG. Incidence and prognosis of early hepatic dysfunction in critically ill patients—a prospective multicenter study. Crit Care Med 2007; 35: 1099- 1104.
  • 34
    Helftenbein A, Windolf J, Sanger P, Hanisch E. [Incidence and prognosis of postoperative jaundice in surgical intensive care patients]. [Article in German]. Chirurg 1997; 68: 1292- 1296.
  • 35
    Vincent JL, Moreno R, Takala J, Willatts S, De Mendonca A, Bruining H, et al. The SOFA (Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment) score to describe organ dysfunction/failure. On behalf of the Working Group on Sepsis-Related Problems of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Intensive Care Med 1996; 22: 707- 710.
  • 36
    Le Gall JR, Klar J, Lemeshow S, Saulnier F, Alberti C, Artigas A, Teres D. The Logistic Organ Dysfunction system. A new way to assess organ dysfunction in the intensive care unit. ICU Scoring Group. JAMA 1996; 276: 802- 810.
  • 37
    Marshall JC, Cook DJ, Christou NV, Bernard GR, Sprung CL, Sibbald WJ. Multiple organ dysfunction score: a reliable descriptor of a complex clinical outcome. Crit Care Med 1995; 23: 1638- 1652.
  • 38
    Geier A, Fickert P, Trauner M. Mechanisms of disease: mechanisms and clinical implications of cholestasis in sepsis. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 3: 574- 585.
  • 39
    Chand N, Sanyal AJ. Sepsis-induced cholestasis. HEPATOLOGY 2007; 45: 230- 241.
  • 40
    Trauner M, Arrese M, Lee H, Boyer JL, Karpen SJ. Endotoxin downregulates rat hepatic ntcp gene expression via decreased activity of critical transcription factors. J Clin Invest 1998; 101: 2092- 2100.
  • 41
    Roelofsen H, van der Veere CN, Ottenhoff R, Schoemaker B, Jansen PL, Oude Elferink RP. Decreased bilirubin transport in the perfused liver of endotoxemic rats. Gastroenterology 1994; 107: 1075- 1084.
  • 42
    Roelofsen H, Schoemaker B, Bakker C, Ottenhoff R, Jansen PL, Elferink RP. Impaired hepatocanalicular organic anion transport in endotoxemic rats. Am J Physiol 1995; 269: G427- G434.
  • 43
    Moseley RH, Wang W, Takeda H, Lown K, Shick L, Ananthanarayanan M, Suchy FJ. Effect of endotoxin on bile acid transport in rat liver: a potential model for sepsis-associated cholestasis. Am J Physiol 1996; 271: G137- G146.
  • 44
    Bolder U, Ton-Nu HT, Schteingart CD, Frick E, Hofmann AF. Hepatocyte transport of bile acids and organic anions in endotoxemic rats: impaired uptake and secretion. Gastroenterology 1997; 112: 214- 225.
  • 45
    Trauner M, Arrese M, Soroka CJ, Ananthanarayanan M, Koeppel TA, Schlosser SF, et al. The rat canalicular conjugate export pump (Mrp2) is down-regulated in intrahepatic and obstructive cholestasis. Gastroenterology 1997; 113: 255- 264.
  • 46
    Vanwijngaerden YM, Wauters J, Langouche L, Vander Perre S, Liddle C, Coulter S, et al. Critical illness evokes elevated circulating bile acids related to altered hepatic transporter and nuclear receptor expression. HEPATOLOGY 2011; 54: 1741- 1752.
  • 47
    Fuhrmann V, Kneidinger N, Herkner H, Heinz G, Nikfardjam M, Bojic A, et al. Impact of hypoxic hepatitis on mortality in the intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med 2011; 37: 1302- 1310.
  • 48
    Aninat C, Seguin P, Descheemaeker PN, Morel F, Malledant Y, Guillouzo A. Catecholamines induce an inflammatory response in human hepatocytes. Crit Care Med 2008; 36: 848- 854.
  • 49
    Yang S, Zhou M, Chaudry IH, Wang P. Norepinephrine-induced hepatocellular dysfunction in early sepsis is mediated by activation of alpha2-adrenoceptors. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2001; 281: G1014- G1021.
  • 50
    Yang S, Koo DJ, Zhou M, Chaudry IH, Wang P. Gut-derived norepinephrine plays a critical role in producing hepatocellular dysfunction during early sepsis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2000; 279: G1274- G1281.
  • 51
    Matuschak GM, Pinsky MR, Rogers RM. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on hepatic blood flow and performance. J Appl Physiol 1987; 62: 1377- 1383.
  • 52
    Bredenberg CE, Paskanik AM. Relation of portal hemodynamics to cardiac output during mechanical ventilation with PEEP. Ann Surg 1983; 198: 218- 222.
  • 53
    Brienza N, Revelly JP, Ayuse T, Robotham JL. Effects of PEEP on liver arterial and venous blood flows. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995; 152: 504- 510.
  • 54
    Bonnet F, Richard C, Glaser P, Lafay M, Guesde R. Changes in hepatic flow induced by continuous positive pressure ventilation in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 1982; 10: 703- 705.
  • 55
    Kumpf VJ. Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease in adult and pediatric patients. Nutr Clin Pract 2006; 21: 279- 290.
  • 56
    Purcell PN, Branson RD, Hurst JM, Davis K, Jr., Johnson DJ. Gut feeding and hepatic hemodynamics during PEEP ventilation for acute lung injury. J Surg Res 1992; 53: 335- 341.
  • 57
    Lindor KD, Fleming CR, Abrams A, Hirschkorn MA. Liver function values in adults receiving total parenteral nutrition. JAMA 1979; 241: 2398- 2400.
  • 58
    Clarke PJ, Ball MJ, Kettlewell MG. Liver function tests in patients receiving parenteral nutrition. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1991; 15: 54- 59.
  • 59
    Greenberg GR, Wolman SL, Christofides ND, Bloom SR, Jeejeebhoy KN. Effect of total parenteral nutrition on gut hormone release in humans. Gastroenterology 1981; 80: 988- 993.
  • 60
    Casaer MP, Mesotten D, Hermans G, Wouters PJ, Schetz M, Meyfroidt G, et al. Early versus late parenteral nutrition in critically ill adults. N Engl J Med 2011; 365: 506- 517.
  • 61
    Topuzlu C, Stahl WM. Effect of bile infusion on the dog kidney. N Engl J Med 1966; 274: 760- 763.
  • 62
    Fogarty BJ, Parks RW, Rowlands BJ, Diamond T. Renal dysfunction in obstructive jaundice. Br J Surg 1995; 82: 877- 884.
  • 63
    Uslu A, Tasli FA, Nart A, Postaci H, Aykas A, Bati H, Coskun Y. Human kidney histopathology in acute obstructive jaundice: a prospective study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 22: 1458- 1465.
  • 64
    Michalopoulos A, Alivizatos P, Geroulanos S. Hepatic dysfunction following cardiac surgery: determinants and consequences. Hepatogastroenterology 1997; 44: 779- 783.
  • 65
    Leber B, Mayrhauser U, Rybczynski M, Stadlbauer V. Innate immune dysfunction in acute and chronic liver disease. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2009; 121: 732- 744.
  • 66
    Antoniades CG, Berry PA, Wendon JA, Vergani D. The importance of immune dysfunction in determining outcome in acute liver failure. J Hepatol 2008; 49: 845- 861.
  • 67
    Portincasa P, Grattagliano I, Testini M, Caruso ML, Wang DQ, Moschetta A, et al. Parallel intestinal and liver injury during early cholestasis in the rat: modulation by bile salts and antioxidants. Free Radic Biol Med 2007; 42: 1381- 1391.
  • 68
    Ruemmele P, Hofstaedter F, Gelbmann CM. Secondary sclerosing cholangitis. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009; 6: 287- 295.
  • 69
    Kobayashi S, Nakanuma Y, Matsui O. Intrahepatic peribiliary vascular plexus in various hepatobiliary diseases: a histological survey. Hum Pathol 1994; 25: 940- 946.
  • 70
    Gossard AA, Angulo P, Lindor KD. Secondary sclerosing cholangitis: a comparison to primary sclerosing cholangitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100: 1330- 1333.
    Direct Link: