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Liver Failure/Cirrhosis/Portal Hypertension
Article first published online: 4 DEC 2012
Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Volume 56, Issue 6, pages 2305–2315, December 2012
How to Cite
Arabi, Y. M., Dara, S. I., Memish, Z., Al Abdulkareem, A., Tamim, H. M., Al-Shirawi, N., Parrillo, J. E., Dodek, P., Lapinsky, S., Feinstein, D., Wood, G., Dial, S., Zanotti, S., Kumar, A. and for the Cooperative Antimicrobial Therapy of Septic Shock (CATSS) Database Research Group (2012), Antimicrobial therapeutic determinants of outcomes from septic shock among patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology, 56: 2305–2315. doi: 10.1002/hep.25931
Potential conflict of interest: Anand Kumar received unrestricted research grants from Eli-Lilly, Pfizer, Bayer, Astellas, Merck, the Manitoba Health Research Council, the Health Sciences Centre (Winnipeg) Foundation, the Innovations and Opportunities Foundation (Winnipeg), and the Deacon Foundation (Winnipeg).
Additional and associate members of the Cooperative Antimicrobial Therapy of Septic Shock Database Research Group are listed in the Appendix.
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- Issue published online: 4 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 4 DEC 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 30 JUN 2012 02:02AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 12 JUN 2012
- Manuscript Received: 25 OCT 2011
It is unclear whether practice-related aspects of antimicrobial therapy contribute to the high mortality from septic shock among patients with cirrhosis. We examined the relationship between aspects of initial empiric antimicrobial therapy and mortality in patients with cirrhosis and septic shock. This was a nested cohort study within a large retrospective database of septic shock from 28 medical centers in Canada, the United States, and Saudi Arabia by the Cooperative Antimicrobial Therapy of Septic Shock Database Research Group between 1996 and 2008. We examined the impact of initial empiric antimicrobial therapeutic variables on the hospital mortality of patients with cirrhosis and septic shock. Among 635 patients with cirrhosis and septic shock, the hospital mortality was 75.6%. Inappropriate initial empiric antimicrobial therapy was administered in 155 (24.4%) patients. The median time to appropriate antimicrobial administration was 7.3 hours (interquartile range, 3.2-18.3 hours). The use of inappropriate initial antimicrobials was associated with increased mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 9.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.3-20.7], as was the delay in appropriate antimicrobials (aOR for each 1 hour increase, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2). Among patients with eligible bacterial septic shock, a single rather than two or more appropriate antimicrobials was used in 226 (72.9%) patients and was also associated with higher mortality (aOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0-3.3). These findings were consistent across various clinically relevant subgroups. Conclusion: In patients with cirrhosis and septic shock, inappropriate and delayed appropriate initial empiric antimicrobial therapy is associated with increased mortality. Monotherapy of bacterial septic shock is also associated with increased mortality. The process of selection and implementation of empiric antimicrobial therapy in this high-risk group should be restructured. (HEPATOLOGY 2012;56:2305–2315)