Potential conflict of interest: Nothing to report.
Article first published online: 4 DEC 2012
Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Volume 56, Issue 6, pages 2277–2287, December 2012
How to Cite
Tsao, C.-M., Yan, M.-D., Shih, Y.-L., Yu, P.-N., Kuo, C.-C., Lin, W.-C., Li, H.-J. and Lin, Y.-W. (2012), SOX1 functions as a tumor suppressor by antagonizing the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology, 56: 2277–2287. doi: 10.1002/hep.25933
Supported in part by grants NSC 99-3112-B-016-003, NSC 99-2314-B-016-015-MY2, NSC 100-2320-B-016-011, and NSC 101-2320-B-016-011 from the National Science Council, Taiwan, Republic of China, and by the Liver Disease Prevention and Treatment Research Foundation, Taiwan, Republic of China.
- Issue published online: 4 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 4 DEC 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 5 JUL 2012 11:43AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 14 JUN 2012
- Manuscript Received: 30 APR 2012
- National Science Council, Taiwan, Republic of China. Grant Numbers: NSC 99-3112-B-016-003, NSC 99-2314-B-016-015-MY2, NSC 100-2320-B-016-011, NSC 101-2320-B-016-011
- Liver Disease Prevention and Treatment Research Foundation, Taiwan, Republic of China
Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article.
|HEP_25933_sm_SuppFig1.tif||5150K||Supporting Information Figure 1. (A) Increased SOX1 expression dramatically suppressed anchorage-independent growth (AIG) of HepG2, Huh7 and SK-Hep-1 cells. The representative photographs were taken after 4 weeks of incubation and the number of colonies was measured. (B) Elevated SOX1 expression inhibited the invasion ability of SK-Hep-1 and HA22T cells. A representative photograph of invasive cells on the lower surface of the insert is shown.|
|HEP_25933_sm_SuppFig2.tif||649K||Supporting Information Figure 2. Tumors harvested on day 38 after implantation were used to verify the level of SOX1 expression by Western blot. β-actin was used as a loading control.|
|HEP_25933_sm_SuppFig3.tif||463K||Supporting Information Figure 3. Time- and dose-dependent induction of SOX1 protein expression by doxycycline. (A) DOX (0, 0.01, 0.1,1 and 10 μg/ml) was applied to cells for 48 hr. (B) Hep3B cells were treated with DOX (1 μg/ml) for 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Cell lysates were subjected to Western blot analysis. β-actin was used as a loading control.|
|HEP_25933_sm_SuppFig4.tif||2609K||Supporting Information Figure 4. (A) Inducible SOX1 expression dramatically suppressed anchorage-independent growth of HepG2, Huh7 and SK-Hep-1 cells. The representative photographs were taken after 4 weeks of incubation and the numbers of colonies were measured. (B) A Matrigel invasion assay was performed in SK-Hep-1 cells inductively expressing SOX1 by treatment with doxycycline 1 μg/ml for 3 days. The cells were then placed in a Matrigel-coated Boyden chamber and allowed to invade for 24 hr. A representative photograph of invasive cells on the lower surface of the insert is shown.|
|HEP_25933_sm_SuppFig5.tif||1346K||Supporting Information Figure 5. (A) The SOX1 protein levels expressed inductively by 1 μg/ml DOX for 7 days (DOX+) and then withdrawal of DOX for a further 7 days (DOX withdrawal) were investigated by Western blot. (B) A representative photograph of the AIG assay from cells treated as described in (A) is shown.|
|HEP_25933_sm_SuppFig6.tif||1236K||Supporting Information Figure 6. GST pull-down assay. Purified GST only or GST-SOX1 proteins were immobilized on a glutathione-sepharose column and mixed with lysate from Huh6 cells. After washing and elution, the remaining proteins were analyzed by Western blot using anti-β-catenin and anti-GST antibodies.|
|HEP_25933_sm_SuppFig7.tif||1588K||Supporting Information Figure 7. Truncated Flag-SOX1 suppresses ß-catenin-mediated TCF/LEF signaling. (A) Full-length Flag-SOX1 and truncated Flag-SOX1 as indicated were established and shown by Western blot from COS7 cells. (B) Huh6, Hep3B and HepG2 cells were transfected with Flag-tagged plasmids as indicated and the TOPFLASH reporter gene and dual-luciferase activities were measured as described above. The data showed that full-length Flag-SOX1, Flag-?N-SOX1 and Flag-?C-SOX1 could suppress ß-catenin-mediated TCF/LEF signaling with an efficiency comparable with that of Flag-Vector, whereas Flag-C-SOX1 could not suppress it. The luciferase activity was normalized to the Renilla luciferase activity. The results are presented as the mean ± SE. Experiments were performed in triplicate. Significant differences are indicated by asterisks; (*) for P < 0.05 and (*) for P < 0.01.|
|HEP_25933_sm_SuppTab1.tif||6461K||Supporting Information Table 1.|
|HEP_25933_sm_SuppTab2.doc||69K||Supporting Information Table 2. Correlation between SOX1 expression and clinicopathologic characteristics|
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