• 1
    Kiyosawa K, Furuta S. Review of hepatitis C in Japan. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1991; 6: 383391.
  • 2
    Alter MJ, Margolis HS, Krawczynski K, Judson FN, Mares A, Alexander WJ, et al. The natural history of community acquired hepatitis C in the United States. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 18991905.
  • 3
    Colombo M, Kuo G, Choo QL, Donato MF, Del Ninno E, Tommasini MA, et al. Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in Italian patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Lancet 1989; 2: 10061008.
  • 4
    Hasan F, Jeffers LJ, De Medina M, Reddy KR, Parker T, Schiff ER, et al. Hepatitis C-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. HEPATOLOGY 1990; 12: 589591.
  • 5
    Kew MC, Houghton M, Choo QL, Kuo G. Hepatitis C virus antibodies in southern African blacks with hepatocellular carcinoma. Lancet 1990; 335: 873874.
  • 6
    Tsukuma H, Hiyama T, Tanaka S, Nakao M, Yabuuchi T, Kitamura T, et al. Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma among patients with chronic liver disease. N Engl J Med 1993; 328: 17971801.
  • 7
    Ikeda K, Saitoh S, Koida I, Arase Y, Tsubota A, Chayama K, et al. A multivariate analysis of risk factors for hepatocellular carcinogenesis: a prospective observation of 795 patients with viral and alcoholic cirrhosis. HEPATOLOGY 1993; 18: 4753.
  • 8
    Waki K, Noda M, Sasaki S, Matsumura Y, Takahashi Y, Isogawa A, et al.; JPHC Study Group. Alcohol consumption and other risk factors for self-reported diabetes among middle-aged Japanese: a population-based prospective study in the JPHC study cohort I. Diabet Med 2005; 22: 323331.
  • 9
    Yasuda K. Early gastric cancer: diagnosis, treatment techniques and outcomes. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 18: 839845.
  • 10
    Van Gossum A. Guidelines for colorectal cancer screening—a puzzle of tests and strategies. Acta Clin Belg 2010; 65: 433436.
  • 11
    Currie GP, Kennedy AM, Denison AR. Tools used in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer: what's old and what's new? QJM 2009; 102: 443448.
  • 12
    Maresh EL, Mah V, Alavi M, Horvath S, Bagryanova L, Liebeskind ES, et al. Differential expression of anterior gradient gene AGR2 in prostate cancer. BMC Cancer 2010; 10: 680.
  • 13
    Calle EE, Rodriquez C, Walker-Thurmond K, Thun MJ. Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults. N Eng J Med 2003; 348: 16251638.
  • 14
    Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Stein H, Banks PM, Chan JK, Cleary ML, et al. A revised European-American classification of lymphoid neoplasms: a proposal from the International Lymphoma Study Group. Blood 1994; 84: 13611392.
  • 15
    Cascinu S, Falconi M, Valentini V, Jelic S; ESMO Guidelines Working Group. Pancreatic cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol 2010; 21( Suppl. 5): v55v58.
  • 16
    American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2010; 33( Suppl. l): S62S69.
  • 17
    Dusheiko G, Schmilovitz-Weiss H, Brown D, McOmish F, Yap PL, Sherlock S, et al. Hepatitis C virus genotypes: an investigation of type-specific differences in geographic origin and disease. HEPATOLOGY 1994; 19: 1318.
  • 18
    Desmet VJ, Gerber M, Hoofnagle JH, Manns M, Sheuer PJ. Classification of chronic hepatitis: diagnosis, grading and staging. HEPATOLOGY 1994; 19: 15131520.
  • 19
    Fleming TR, Harrington DP, O'Brien PC. Designs for group sequential tests. Control Clin Trials 1984; 5: 348361.
  • 20
    Harrington DP, Fleming TR. A class of rank test procedures for censored survival data. Biomedaica 1983; 62: 205209.
  • 21
    Kaplan EL, Meier P. Nonparametric estimation for incomplete observation. J Am Stat Assoc 1958; 53: 457481.
  • 22
    Cox DR. Regression models and life tables. J R Stat Soc 1972; 34: 248275.
  • 23
    Ikeda K, Saitoh S, Arase Y, K Chayama, Y Suzuki, M Kobayashi, et al. Effect of interferon therapy on hepatocellular carcinogenesis in patients with chronic hepatitis type C; A long-term observation study of 1643 patients using statistical bias correction with proportional hazard analysis. HEPATOLOGY 1999; 29: 11241130.
  • 24
    Kasahara A, Hayashi N, Mochizuki K, Takayanagi M, Yoshioka K, Kakumu S, et al. Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma and its incidence after interferon treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Osaka Liver Disease Study Group. HEPATOLOGY 1998: 2; 13941402.
  • 25
    Imai Y, Kawata S, Tamura S, Yabuuchi I, Noda S, Inada M, et al. Relation of interferon therapy and hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Osaka Hepatocellular Carcinoma Prevention Study Group. Ann Intern Med 1998: 129; 9499.
  • 26
    Yoshida H, Arakawa Y, Sata M, Nishiguchi S, Ya M, Fujiyama S, et al. Interferon therapy prolonged life expectancy among chronic hepatitis patients. Gastroenterology 2002: 123; 483491.
  • 27
    Veldt BJ, Chen W, Heathcote EJ, Wedemeyer H, Reichen J, Hofmann WP, et al. Increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among patients with hepatitis C cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus. HEPATOLOGY 2008; 47: 18561862.
  • 28
    Asahina Y, Tsuchiya K, Tamaki N, Hirayama I, Tanaka T, Sato M, et al. Effect of aging on risk for hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. HEPATOLOGY 2010; 52: 518527.
  • 29
    Matsuda T, Marugame T, Kamo KI, Katanoda K, Ajiki W, Sobue T. The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2005: based on data from 12 population-based cancer registries in the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) Project. Jpn J Clin Oncol 2011; 41: 139147.
  • 30
    Boyle P. Cancer, cigarette smoking and premature death in Europe: a review including the Recommendations of European Cancer Experts Consensus Meeting, Helsinki, October 1996. Lung Cancer 1997; 17: 160.
  • 31
    Botteri E, Iodice S, Bagnardi V, Raimondi S, Lowenfels AB, Maisonneuve P. Smoking and colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2008; 300: 27652778.
  • 32
    Everhart J, Wright D. Diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. A metaanalysis. JAMA 1995; 273: 16051609.
  • 33
    El-Serag HB, Hampel H, Javadi F. The association between diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review of epidemiologic evidence. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 4: 369380.
  • 34
    Larsson SC, Orsini N, Brismar K, Wolk A. Diabetes mellitus and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis. Diabetologia 2006; 49: 28192823.
  • 35
    Mitri J, Castillo J, Pittas AG. Diabetes and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a metaanalysis of observational studies. Diabetes Care 2008; 31: 23912397.
  • 36
    Larsson SC, Orsini N, Wolk A. Diabetes mellitus and risk of colorectal cancer: a metaanalysis. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005; 97: 16791687.
  • 37
    Giovannucci E. Metabolic syndrome, hyperinsulinemia, and colon cancer: a review. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 86: 836S842S.
  • 38
    Larsson SC, Mantzoros CS, Wolk A. Diabetes mellitus and risk of breast cancer: a metaanalysis. Int J Cancer 2007; 121: 856862.
  • 39
    Hsing AW, Gao Y-T, Chua S, Deng J, Stanczyk FZ. Insulin resistance and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003; 95: 6771.
  • 40
    George AJ, Thomas WG, Hannan RD. The renin-angiotensin system and cancer: old dog, new tricks. Nat Rev Cancer 2010; 10: 745759.
  • 41
    Shackelford DB, Shaw RJ. The LKB1-AMPK pathway: metabolism and growth control in tumour suppression. Nat Rev Cancer 2009; 9: 563575.
  • 42
    Brown MS, Goldstein JL. The SREBP pathway: regulation of cholesterol metabolism by proteolysis of a membrane-bound transcription factor. Cell 1997; 89: 331340.
  • 43
    Mehta SH, Brancati FL, Strathdee SA, Pankow JS, Netski D, Coresh J, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection and incident type 2 diabetes. HEPATOLOGY 2003; 38: 5056.
  • 44
    Imazeki F, Yokosuka O, Fukai K, Kanda T, Kojima H, Saisho H. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance in patients with chronic hepatitis C: comparison with hepatitis B virus-infected and hepatitis C virus-cleared patients. Liver Int 2008; 28: 355362.
  • 45
    Arase Y, Suzuki F, Suzuki Y, Akuta N, Kobayashi M, Kawamura Y, et al. Sustained virological response reduces incidence of onset of type 2 diabetes in chronic hepatitis C. HEPATOLOGY 2009; 49: 739744.
  • 46
    Thuluvath PJ, John PR. Association between hepatitis C, diabetes mellitus, and race. a case-control study. Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98: 438441.