• 1
    Hahn JA, Page-Shafer K, Lum PJ, Ochoa K, Moss AR. Hepatitis C virus infection and needle exchange use among young injection drug users in San Francisco. HEPATOLOGY 2001; 34: 180187.
  • 2
    Hagan H, Pouget ER, Des Jarlais DC, Lelutiu-Weinberger C. Meta-regression of hepatitis C virus infection in relation to time since onset of illicit drug injection: the influence of time and place. Am J Epidemiol 2008; 168: 10991109.
  • 3
    Williams IT, Bell BP, Kuhnert W, Alter MJ. Incidence and transmission patterns of acute hepatitis C in the United States, 1982-2006. Arch Intern Med 2011; 171: 242248.
  • 4
    Edlin BR, Kresina TF, Raymond DB, Carden MR, Gourevitch MN, Rich JD, et al. Overcoming barriers to prevention, care, and treatment of hepatitis C in illicit drug users. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 40( Suppl. 5): S276S285.
  • 5
    Hagan H, Campbell J, Thiede H, Strathdee S, Ouellet L, Kapadia F, et al. Self-reported hepatitis C virus antibody status and risk behavior in young injectors. Public Health Rep 2006; 121: 710719.
  • 6
    Weinbaum C, Lyerla R, Margolis HS. Prevention and control of infections with hepatitis viruses in correctional settings. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Recomm Rep 2003; 52: 136.
  • 7
    Fox RK, Currie SL, Evans J, Wright TL, Tobler L, Phelps B, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection among prisoners in the California state correctional system. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 41: 177186.
  • 8
    Bureau of Justice., 2011. Accessed May 30, 2012.
  • 9
    Spaulding A, Greene C, Davidson K, Schneidermann M, Rich J. Hepatitis C in state correctional facilities. Prev Med 1999; 28: 92100.
  • 10
    Institute of Medicine. Hepatitis and liver cancer: a national strategy for prevention and control of hepatitis B and C. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2010.
  • 11
    McGovern BH, Wurcel A, Kim AY, Schulze zur Wiesch J, Bica I, Zaman MT, et al. Acute hepatitis C virus infection in incarcerated injection drug users. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 42: 16631670.
  • 12
    Thomas DL. Acute hepatitis C: a window of opportunity. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 42: 16711673.
  • 13
    Massachusetts Department of Correction Research and Planning Division. 2007 Court Commitments to the Massachusetts Department of Correction, Publication No. 08-133-03, 2008.
  • 14
    Hagan H, Pouget ER, Williams IT, Garfein RL, Strathdee SA, Hudson SM, et al. Attribution of hepatitis C virus seroconversion risk in young injection drug users in 5 US cities. J Infect Dis 2010; 201: 378385.
  • 15
    McGovern BH, Birch CE, Bowen MJ, Reyor LL, Nagami EH, Chung RT, et al. Improving the diagnosis of acute hepatitis C virus infection with expanded viral load criteria. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 49: 10511060.
  • 16
    Wasley A, Miller JT, Finelli L. Surveillance for Acute Viral Hepatitis—United States, 2005. MMWR 2007; 56: 124.
  • 17
    McGovern BH, Nagami EH, Birch CE, Bowen MJ, Reyor LL, Chung RT, et al. Rate of sustained virologic response in relation to baseline hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA level and rapid virologic clearance in persons with acute HCV infection. J Infect Dis 2009; 200: 877881.
  • 18
    Cox AL, Page K, Bruneau J, Shoukry NH, Lauer GM, Kim AY, et al. Rare birds in North America: acute hepatitis C cohorts. Gastroenterology 2009; 136: 2631.
  • 19
    Hagan H, Thiede H, Weiss NS, Hopkins SG, Duchin JS, Alexander ER. Sharing of drug preparation equipment as a risk factor for hepatitis C. Am J Public Health 2001; 91: 4246.
  • 20
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for the identification of chronic hepatitis C virus infection among persons born during 1945-1965. MMWR Recomm Rep 2012; 61: 132.
  • 21
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis C virus infection among adolescents and young adults—Massachusetts, 2002-2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2011; 60: 537541.
  • 22
    Spaulding AC, Thomas DL. Screening for HCV infection in jails. JAMA 2012; 307: 12591260.
  • 23
    Sabol WJ. Prisoners in 2008. Bureau of Justice Statistics; 2009.
  • 24
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Summary of notifiable diseases—United States, 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2012; 59: 1111.
  • 25
    Des Jarlais DC, Perlis T, Arasteh K, Torian LV, Hagan H, Beatrice S, et al. Reductions in hepatitis C virus and HIV infections among injecting drug users in New York City, 1990-2001. AIDS 2005; 19( Suppl 3): S20S25.
  • 26
    Broz D, Ouellet LJ. Racial and ethnic changes in heroin injection in the United States: implications for the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Drug Alcohol Depend 2008; 94: 221233.
  • 27
    Lelutiu-Weinberger C, Pouget ER, Des Jarlais DD, Cooper HL, Scheinmann R, Stern R, et al. A meta-analysis of the hepatitis C virus distribution in diverse racial/ethnic drug injector groups. Soc Sci Med 2009; 68: 579590.
  • 28
    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Volume I. Summary of National Findings Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-38A, Department of Health and Human Services Publication No. SMA 10-4586 Findings; 2010.
  • 29
    Notes from the field: hepatitis C virus infections among young adults—rural Wisconsin, 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2012; 61: 358.
  • 30
    Hagan H, Pouget ER, Des Jarlais DC. A systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions to prevent hepatitis C virus infection in people who inject drugs. J Infect Dis 2011; 204: 7483.
  • 31
    Eastman E, Rappaport E, DeMaria A, Werner B. Validation of self-reported risk as a method for identifying anti-hepatitis C positive individuals at time of intake physical examination at Massachusetts Department of Correction facilities. In: 129th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association; October 21-25, 2001; Atlanta, GA.
  • 32
    Calzavara L, Ramuscak N, Burchell AN, Swantee C, Myers T, Ford P, et al. Prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C virus infections among inmates of Ontario remand facilities. CMAJ 2007; 177: 257261.
  • 33
    Poulin C, Alary M, Lambert G, Godin G, Landry S, Gagnon H, et al. Prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C virus infections among inmates of Quebec provincial prisons. CMAJ 2007; 177: 252256.
  • 34
    Doherty MC, Garfein RS, Monterroso E, Latkin C, Vlahov D. Gender differences in the initiation of injection drug use among young adults. J Urban Health 2000; 77: 396414.
  • 35
    Boutwell AE, Allen SA, Rich JD. Opportunities to address the hepatitis C epidemic in the correctional setting. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 40( Suppl. 5): S367S372.
  • 36
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed July 7, 2011.
  • 37
    Cox AL, Netski DM, Mosbruger T, Sherman SG, Strathdee S, Ompad D, et al. Prospective evaluation of community-acquired acute-phase hepatitis C virus infection. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 40: 951958.
  • 38
    Maheshwari A, Ray S, Thuluvath PJ. Acute hepatitis C. Lancet 2008; 372: 321332.
  • 39
    Corey KE, Mendez-Navarro J, Gorospe EC, Zheng H, Chung RT. Early treatment improves outcomes in acute hepatitis C virus infection: a meta-analysis. J Viral Hepat 2010; 17: 201207.
  • 40
    Hellard M, Sacks-Davis R, Gold J. Hepatitis C treatment for injection drug users: a review of the available evidence. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 49: 561573.
  • 41
    Rosen HR. Clinical practice. Chronic hepatitis C infection. N Engl J Med 2011; 364: 24292438.
  • 42
    Grebely J, Thomas DL, Dore GJ. HCV reinfection studies and the door to vaccine development. J Hepatol 2009; 51: 628631.
  • 43
    Macalino GE, Dhawan D, Rich JD. A missed opportunity: hepatitis C screening of prisoners. Am J Public Health 2005; 95: 17391740.
  • 44
    Page K, Hahn JA, Evans J, Shiboski S, Lum P, Delwart E, et al. Acute hepatitis C virus infection in young adult injection drug users: a prospective study of incident infection, resolution, and reinfection. J Infect Dis 2009; 200: 12161226.
  • 45
    Sutton AJ, Edmunds WJ, Gill ON. Estimating the cost-effectiveness of detecting cases of chronic hepatitis C infection on reception into prison. BMC Public Health 2006; 6: 170.