• 1
    Beuers U. Drug insight: mechanisms and sites of action of ursodeoxycholic acid in cholestasis. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 3: 318-328.
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    Lindor KD, Gershwin ME, Poupon R, Kaplan M, Bergasa NV, Heathcote EJ. Primary biliary cirrhosis. HEPATOLOGY 2009; 50: 291-308.
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    EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines: management of cholestatic liver diseases. J Hepatol 2009; 51: 237-267.
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    Dilger K, Hohenester S, Winkler-Budenhofer U, Bastiaansen BA, Schaap FG, Rust C, et al. Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on bile acid profiles and intestinal detoxification machinery in primary biliary cirrhosis and health. J Hepatol 2012; 57: 133-140.
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    Marschall HU, Wagner M, Zollner G, Fickert P, Diczfalusy U, Gumhold J, Silber D, et al. Complementary stimulation of hepatobiliary transport and detoxification systems by rifampicin and ursodeoxycholic acid in humans. Gastroenterology 2005; 129: 476-485.
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    Castro RE, Ferreira DM, Afonso MB, Borralho PM, Machado MV, Cortez-Pinto H, et al. miR-34a/SIRT1/p53 is suppressed by ursodeoxycholic acid in rat liver and activated by disease severity in human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J Hepatol 2012; 58: 119-125.
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    Beuers U, Thiel M, Bardenheuer H, Paumgartner G. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid inhibits the cytosolic Ca++ increase in human neutrophils stimulated by formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1990; 171: 1115-1121.
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    Bouscarel B, Fromm H, Nussbaum R. Ursodeoxycholate mobilizes intracellular Ca++ and activates phosphorylase a in isolated hepatocytes. Am J Physiol 1993; 264: G243-G251.
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    Beuers U, Nathanson MH, Boyer JL. Effects of tauroursodeoxycholic acid on cytosolic Ca++ signals in isolated rat hepatocytes. Gastroenterology 1993; 104: 604-612.
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    Beuers U, Nathanson MH, Isales CM, Boyer JL. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid stimulates hepatocellular exocytosis and mobilizes extracellular Ca++ mechanisms defective in cholestasis. J Clin Invest 1993; 92: 2984-293.
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    Bouscarel B, Gettys TW, Fromm H, Dubner H. Ursodeoxycholic acid inhibits glucagon-induced cAMP formation in hamster hepatocytes: a role for PKC. Am J Physiol 1995; 268: G300-G310.
  • 12
    Beuers U, Throckmorton DC, Anderson MS, Isales CM, Thasler W, Kullak-Ublick GA, et al. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid activates protein kinase C in isolated rat hepatocytes. Gastroenterology 1996; 110: 1553-1563.
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    Stravitz RT, Rao YP, Vlahcevic ZR, Gurley EC, Jarvis WD, Hylemon PB. Hepatocellular protein kinase C activation by bile acids: implications for regulation of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase. Am J Physiol 1996; 271: G293-G303.
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    Schliess F, Kurz AK, vom Dahl S, Haussinger D. Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate the stimulation of bile acid secretion by tauroursodeoxycholate in rat liver. Gastroenterology 1997; 113: 1306-1314.
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    Kurz AK, Graf D, Schmitt M, Vom Dahl S, Haussinger D. Tauroursodesoxycholate-induced choleresis involves p38(MAPK) activation and translocation of the bile salt export pump in rats. Gastroenterology 2001; 121: 407-419.
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    Häussinger D, Kurz AK, Wettstein M, Graf D, Vom Dahl S, Schliess F. Involvement of integrins and Src in tauroursodeoxycholate-induced and swelling-induced choleresis. Gastroenterology 2003; 124: 1476-1487.
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    Marzioni M, Francis H, Benedetti A, Ueno Y, Fava G, Venter J, et al. Ca2+-dependent cytoprotective effects of ursodeoxycholic and tauroursodeoxycholic acid on the biliary epithelium in a rat model of cholestasis and loss of bile ducts. Am J Pathol 2006; 168: 398-409.
  • 18
    Häussinger D, Hallbrucker C, Saha N, Lang F, Gerok W. Cell volume and bile acid excretion. Biochem J 1992; 288( Pt 2): 681-689.
  • 19
    Beuers U, Bilzer M, Chittattu A, Kullak-Ublick GA, Keppler D, Paumgartner G, et al. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid inserts the apical conjugate export pump, Mrp2, into canalicular membranes and stimulates organic anion secretion by protein kinase C-dependent mechanisms in cholestatic rat liver. HEPATOLOGY 2001; 33: 1206-1216.
  • 20
    Milkiewicz P, Roma MG, Elias E, Coleman R. Hepatoprotection with tauroursodeoxycholate and beta muricholate against taurolithocholate induced cholestasis: involvement of signal transduction pathways. Gut 2002; 51: 113-119.
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    Dombrowski F, Stieger B, Beuers U. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid inserts the bile salt export pump into canalicular membranes of cholestatic rat liver. Lab Invest 2006; 86: 166-174.
  • 22
    Wimmer R, Hohenester S, Pusl T, Denk GU, Rust C, Beuers U. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid exerts anticholestatic effects by a cooperative cPKC alpha-/PKA-dependent mechanism in rat liver. Gut 2008; 57: 1448-54.
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    Cruz LN, Guerra MT, Kruglov E, Mennone A, Garcia CR, Chen J, et al. Regulation of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 by calcium signaling in mouse liver. HEPATOLOGY 2010; 52: 327-337.
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    Denk GU, Maitz S, Wimmer R, Rust C, Invernizzi P, Ferdinandusse S, et al. Conjugation is essential for the anticholestatic effect of norursodeoxycholic acid in taurolithocholic acid-induced cholestasis in rat liver. HEPATOLOGY 2010; 52: 1758-1768.
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    Glasova H, Berghaus TM, Kullak-Ublick GA, Paumgartner G, Beuers U. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid mobilizes alpha-PKC after uptake in human HepG2 hepatoma cells. Eur J Clin Invest 2002; 32: 437-442.
  • 26
    Gohlke H, Schmitz B, Sommerfeld A, Reinehr R, Häussinger D. α5β1-Integrins are sensors for tauroursodeoxycholic acid in hepatocytes. HEPATOLOGY 2013;57:1117-1129.
  • 27
    Denk GU, Hohenester S, Wimmer R, Bohland C, Rust C, Beuers U. Role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in tauroursodeoxycholic acid-induced bile formation in cholestatic rat liver. Hepatol Res 2008; 38: 717-726.