• 1
    El-Serag HB. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in USA. Hepatol Res 2007; 37: 88-94.
  • 2
    Freeman RB Jr, Steck DE, Guidinger MK, Farmer DG, Berg CL, Merion RM. Liver and intestine transplantation in the United States, 1997-2006. Am J Transplant 2008; 8: 958-976.
  • 3
    Sanyal AJ; Governing Board the Public Policy, Clinical Practice, Manpower committees of the AASLD. The Institute of Medicine report on viral hepatitis: a call to action. Hepatology 2010; 51: 727-728.
  • 4
    Velazquez RF, Rodrguez M, Navascues CA, Linares A, Perez R, Sotorros NG, et al. Prospective analysis of risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with liver cirrhosis. Hepatology 2003; 37: 520-527.
  • 5
    Yang JD, Kim WR, Coelho R, Mettler TA, Benson JT, Sanderson SO, et al. Cirrhosis is present in most patients with hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011; 9: 64-70.
  • 6
    Armstrong GL, Wasley A, Simard EP, McQuillan GM, Kuhnert WL, Alter MJ. The Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in the United States, 1999 through 2002. Ann Intern Med 2006; 144: 705-714.
  • 7
    Roblin DW, Smith BD, Weinbaum CM, Sabin ME. HCV screening practices and prevalence in an MCO, 2000-2007. Am J Manag Care 2011; 17: 548-555.
  • 8
    Spradling PR, Rupp L, Moorman AC, Lu M, Teshale EH, Gordon SC, et al. Hepatitis B and C virus infection among 1.2 million persons with access to care: factors associated with testing and infection prevalence. Clin Infect Dis 2012; 55: 1047-1055.
  • 9
    Southern WN, Drainoni ML, Smith BD, Christiansen CL, McKee D, Gifford AL, et al. Hepatitis C testing practices and prevalence in a high-risk urban ambulatory care setting. J Viral Hepat 2011; 18: 474-481.
  • 10
    Volk ML, Tocco R, Saini S, Lok ASF. Public health impact of antiviral therapy for hepatitis C in the United States. Hepatology 2009; 50: 1750-1755.
  • 11
    Maheshwari A, Thuluvath PJ. Management of acute hepatitis C. Clin Liver Dis 2010; 14: 169-176.
  • 12
    Williams IT, Bell BP, Kuhnert W, Alter MJ. Incidence and transmission patterns of acute hepatitis C in the United States, 1982-2006. Arch Intern Med 2011; 171: 242-248.
  • 13
    Smith BD, Morgan RL, Beckett GA, Falck-Ytter Y, Holtzman D, Ward JW. Hepatitis C virus testing of persons born during 1945 to 1965: recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ann Intern Med 2012; 157: 817-822.
  • 14
    Rein DB, Wittenborn JS, Weinbaum CM, Sabin M, Smith BD, Lesesne SB. Forecasting the morbidity and mortality associated with prevalent cases of pre-cirrhotic chronic hepatitis C in the United States. Dig Liver Dis 2011; 43: 66-72.
  • 15
    Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Recomm Rep 1998; 47: 1-39.
  • 16
    Rein DB, Smith BD, Wittenborn JS, Lesesne SB, Wagner LD, Roblin DW, et al. The cost-effectiveness of birth-cohort screening for hepatitis C antibody in U.S. primary care settings. Ann Intern Med 2012; 156: 263-270.
  • 17
    McGarry LJ, Pawar VS, Panchmatia HR, Rubin JL, Davis GL, Younossi ZM, et al. Economic model of a birth cohort screening program for hepatitis C virus. Hepatology 2012; 55: 1344-1355.
  • 18
    Coffin PO, Scott JD, Golden MR, Sullivan SD. Cost-effectiveness and population outcomes of general population screening for hepatitis C. Clin Infect Dis 2012; 54: 1259-1271.
  • 19
    Deuffic-Burban S, Poynard T, Sulkowski MS, Wong JB. Estimating the future health burden of chronic hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus infections in the United States. J Viral Hepat 2007; 14: 107-115.
  • 20
    Martin NK, Vickerman P, Foster GR, Hutchinson SJ, Goldberg DJ, Hickman M. Can antiviral therapy for hepatitis C reduce the prevalence of HCV among injecting drug user populations? A modeling analysis of its prevention utility. J Hepatol 2011; 54: 1137-1144.
  • 21
    McEwan P, Kim R, Yuan Y. Assessing the cost utility of response guided therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 in the UK using the MONARCH model. Appl Health Econ Health Policy 2013; 11: 53-63.
  • 22
    Jacobson IM, McHutchison JG, Dusheiko G, Di Bisceglie AM, Reddy KR, Bzowej NH, et al. Telaprevir for previously untreated chronic hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 2011; 364: 2405-2416.
  • 23
    Bruno S, Shiffman ML, Roberts SK, Gane EJ, Messinger D, Hadziyannis SJ, et al. Efficacy and safety of peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD) plus ribavirin in hepatitis C patients with advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. Hepatology 2010; 51: 388-397.
  • 24
    Thein HH, Yi Q, Dore GJ, Krahn MD. Estimation of stage-specific fibrosis progression rates in chronic hepatitis C virus infection: a meta-analysis and meta-regression. Hepatology 2008; 48: 418-431.
  • 25
    Sroczynski G, Esteban E, Conrads-Frank A, Schwarzer R, Mühlberger N, Wright D, et al. Long term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of antiviral treatment in hepatitis C. J Viral Hepat 2010; 17: 34-50.
  • 26
    Shepherd J, Brodin H, Cave C, Waugh N, Price A, Gabbay J. Pegylated interferon alpha-2a and −2b in combination with ribavirin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess 2004; 8: 1-125.
  • 27
    Camma C, Petta S, Enea M, Bruno R, Bronte F, Capursi V, et al. Cost-effectiveness of boceprevir or telaprevir for untreated patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2012; 56: 850-860.
  • 28
    Chak E, Talal AH, Sherman KE, Schiff ER, Saab S. Hepatitis C virus infection in USA: an estimate of true prevalence. Liver Int 2011; 31: 1090-1101.
  • 29
    Salomon JA, Weinstein MC, Hammitt JK, Goldie SJ. Cost-effectiveness of treatment for chronic hepatitis C infection in an evolving patient population. JAMA 2003; 290: 228-237.
  • 30
    Fattovich G, Giustina G, Degos F, Tremolada F, Diodati G, Almasio P, et al. Morbidity and mortality in compensated cirrhosis type C: a retrospective follow-up study of 384 patients. Gastroenterology 1997; 112: 463-472.
  • 31
    Yoshida H, Shiratori Y, Moriyama M, Arakawa Y, Ide T, Sata M. Interferon therapy reduces the risk for hepatocellular carcinoma: national surveillance program of cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C in Japan. IHIT Study Group. Inhibition of Hepatocarcinogenesis by Interferon Therapy. Ann Intern Med 1999; 131: 174-181.
  • 32
    Roberts MS, Angus DC, Bryce CL, Valenta Z, Weissfeld L. Survival after liver transplantation in the United States: a disease-specific analysis of the UNOS database. Liver Transpl 2004; 10: 886-897.
  • 33
    Nainan OV, Alter MJ, Kruszon-Moran D, Gao FX, Xia G, McQuillan G, et al. Hepatitis C virus genotypes and viral concentrations in participants of a general population survey in the United States. Gastroenterology 2006; 131: 478-484.
  • 34
    MAG Mutual Healthcare Solutions. 2010 Physicians' Fee & Coding Guide. 21st ed. Atlanta, GA: MAG Mutual Healthcare Solutions; 2009.
  • 35
    Younossi ZM, Singer ME, McHutchison JG, Shermock KM. Cost effectiveness of interferon alpha2b combined with ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 1999; 30: 1318-1324.
  • 36
    McAdam Marx C, McGarry LJ, Hane CA, Biskupiak J, Deniz B, Brixner DI. All cause and incremental per patient per year cost associated with chronic hepatitis C virus and associated liver complications in the United States: a managed care perspective. J Manag Care Pharm 2011; 17: 531-546.
  • 37 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. 2010 Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory Fee, April 2010 Release Fee Schedule, using the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS).
  • 38
    Genentech: A Member of the Roche Group. Pegasys Prescribing Information. Accessed June 10, 2010.
  • 39
    Incivek (telaprevir): package pricing is based on May 2011 WAC for NDC 51167-0100-01, published in May 2011 by REDBOOK (51167-0100-01). Montvale, NJ: Thomson Reuters.
  • 40
    David R. Nelson, Yves Benhamou, Wan-Long Chuang, Eric J. Lawitz, Maribel Rodriguez-Torres Flisiak R et al. Albinterferon alfa-2b was not inferior to pegylated interferon-α in a randomized trial of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 2 or 3. Gastroenterology 2010; 139: 1267-1276.
  • 41
    Chong CA, Gulamhussein A, Heathcote EJ, Lilly L, Sherman M, Naglie G, et al. Health-state utilities and quality of life in hepatitis C patients. Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98: 630-638.
    Direct Link:
  • 42
    McLernon DJ, Dillon J, Donnan PT. Health-state utilities in liver disease: a systematic review. Med Decis Making 2008; 28: 582-592.
  • 43
    Thein HH, Krahn M, Kaldor JM, Dore GJ. Estimation of utilities for chronic hepatitis C from SF-36 scores. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100: 643-651.
  • 44
    Thompson Coon J, Rogers G, Hewson P, Wright D, Anderson R, Jackson S, et al. Surveillance of cirrhosis for hepatocellular carcinoma: a cost-utility analysis. Br J Cancer 2008; 98: 1166-1175.