Biliary lipid secretion plays an important role in gallstone disease and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Using Sr-bI/Abcg5 double knockout mice (dko), the present study investigated the differential contribution of two of the most relevant transporters: adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette subfamily G member 5 and 8 (ABCG5/G8) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) to sterol metabolism and RCT. Plasma cholesterol levels increased in the following order, mainly due to differences in high density lipoprotein (HDL): Abcg5 ko < wild type < Sr-bI/Abcg5 dko < Sr-bI ko. Liver cholesterol content was elevated in Sr-bI ko only (P < 0.05). In Sr-bI/Abcg5 dko plasma plant sterols were highest, while hepatic plant sterols were lower compared with Abcg5 ko (P < 0.05). Under baseline conditions, biliary cholesterol secretion rates decreased in the following order: wild type > Sr-bI ko (−16%) > Abcg5 ko (−75%) > Sr-bI/Abcg5 dko (−94%), all at least P < 0.05, while biliary bile acid secretion did not differ between groups. However, under supraphysiological conditions, upon infusion with increasing amounts of the bile salt tauroursodeoxycholic acid, Abcg5 became fully rate-limiting for biliary cholesterol secretion. Additional in vivo macrophage-to-feces RCT studies demonstrated an almost 50% decrease in overall RCT in Sr-bI/Abcg5 dko compared with Abcg5 ko mice (P < 0.01). Conclusion: These data demonstrate that (1) SR-BI contributes to ABCG5/G8-independent biliary cholesterol secretion under basal conditions; (2) biliary cholesterol mass secretion under maximal bile salt-stimulated conditions is fully dependent on ABCG5/G8; and (3) Sr-bI contributes to macrophage-to-feces RCT independent of Abcg5/g8. (Hepatology 2013;)