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Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is an important factor linking inflammation and tumorigenesis. In this study we experimentally demonstrated through a high-throughput luciferase reporter screen that NF-κB signaling can be directly targeted by nearly 29 microRNAs (miRNAs). Many of these miRNAs can directly target NF-κB signaling nodes by binding to their 3′ untranslated region (UTR). miR-195, a member of the miR-15 family, is frequently down-regulated in gastrointestinal cancers, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The expression level of miR-195 is inversely correlated with HCC tumor size. We further show that miR-195 suppresses cancer cell proliferation and migration in vitro and reduces tumorigenicity and metastasis in vivo. Additionally, miR-195 may exert its tumor suppressive function by decreasing the expression of multiple NF-κB downstream effectors by way of the direct targeting of IKKα and TAB3. Conclusion: Multiple miRNAs are involved in the NF-κB signaling pathway and miR-195 plays important inhibitory roles in cancer progression and may be a potential therapeutic target. (Hepatology 2013;58:654–666)