• 1
    Sekirov I, Russell SL, Antunes LC, Finlay BB. Gut microbiota in health and disease. Physiol Rev 2010;90:859-904.
  • 2
    Quigley EM, Stanton C, Murphy EF. The gut microbiota and the liver. Pathophysiological and clinical implications. J Hepatol 2012.
  • 3
    Miyake Y, Yamamoto K. Role of gut microbiota in liver diseases. Hepatol Res 2013;43:139-146.
  • 4
    Sayin SI, Wahlstrom A, Felin J, Jantti S, Marschall HU, Bamberg K, et al. Gut microbiota regulates bile acid metabolism by reducing the levels of tauro-beta-muricholic acid, a naturally occurring FXR antagonist. Cell Metab 2013;17:225-235.
  • 5
    Lefebvre P, Cariou B, Lien F, Kuipers F, Staels B. Role of bile acids and bile acid receptors in metabolic regulation. Physiol Rev 2009;89:147-191.
  • 6
    Watanabe M, Houten SM, Mataki C, Christoffolete MA, Kim BW, Sato H, et al. Bile acids induce energy expenditure by promoting intracellular thyroid hormone activation. Nature 2006;439:484-489.
  • 7
    Chiang JY. Bile acids: regulation of synthesis. J Lipid Res 2009;50:1955-1966.
  • 8
    Trottier J, Milkiewicz P, Kaeding J, Verreault M, Barbier O. Coordinate regulation of hepatic bile acid oxidation and conjugation by nuclear receptors. Mol Pharm 2006;3:212-222.
  • 9
    Wostmann BS. Intestinal bile acids and cholesterol absorption in the germfree rat. J Nutr 1973;103:982-990.
  • 10
    Watanabe M, Horai Y, Houten SM, Morimoto K, Sugizaki T, Arita E, et al. Lowering bile acid pool size with a synthetic farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist induces obesity and diabetes through reduced energy expenditure. J Biol Chem 2011;286:26913-26920.
  • 11
    Marschall HU, Mueller M, Wagner M, Fickert P, Zollner G, Silbert D, et al. High levels of ursodeoxycholic acid act as fxr antagonist and deplete liver cholesterol due to increased bile acid synthesis in morbidly obese patients. J Hepatol 2012;56:S515-S515.
  • 12
    Hofmann AF, Hagey LR. Bile acids: chemistry, pathochemistry, biology, pathobiology, and therapeutics. Cell Mol Life Sci 2008;65:2461-2483.
  • 13
    Arrese M, Ananthanarayanan M. Mice and men: are they bile-ologically different? Hepatology 2001;33:1551-1553.