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In clinical trials with telaprevir (TLV) and boceprevir (BOC) renal impairment was not reported as a relevant adverse event. The PAN study is a noninterventional study enrolling patients treated with peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin (PEG/RBV) with or without TVL or BOC. Here we restrict the analysis to hepatitis C virus genotype 1 patients having completed 12 (n = 895) or 24 weeks (n = 591) of treatment. For estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula was chosen. Patients on TLV 38/575 (6.6%) and BOC 10/211 (4.7%) more frequently experienced a decrease in eGFR to <60 mL/min compared to patients on PEG/RBV 1/109 (0.9%) (P < 0.05). Risk factors associated with eGFR <60 mL/min in multiple logistic regression analysis were age (P < 0.001), arterial hypertension (P < 0.05), higher serum creatinine at baseline (P < 0.001), and being on triple therapy with TLV or BOC (P < 0.01). Patients with an eGFR of <60 mL/min had a lower absolute mean hemoglobin at week 12 compared to patients with an eGFR >60 mL/min (9.7 g/dL ± 1.4 g/dL versus 11.0 g/dL ± 1.7 g/dL) (P < 0.001). Most patients on TLV with a decrease of eGFR <60 mL/min showed a marked improvement in renal function after discontinuation of TLV. Conclusion: Renal impairment has not been reported as a safety signal in clinical trials with TVL or BOC. However, in this large cohort including patients with risk factors for renal impairment a marked decline in renal function was observed in about 5% of patients on triple therapy. In addition to being a safety concern, substantial ribavirin dose reductions have to be considered in these patients, as anemia was more pronounced in patients with impaired renal function. (Hepatology 2014;58:46–48)